Appendix B
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

Keith C. Clarke (chair) is a research cartographer, professor, and chair of the Geography Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). He holds a B.A. degree with honors from Middlesex Polytechnic, London, England, and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, specializing in analytical cartography. Dr. Clarke’s recent research has been on environmental simulation modeling, on modeling urban growth using cellular automata, on terrain mapping and analysis, and on the history of the CORONA remote sensing program. He is the former North American editor of the International Journal of Geographical Information Systems and is series editor for the Prentice Hall Series in Geographic Information Science. In 1992 he served as science adviser to the Office of Research, National Mapping Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Reston, Virginia. Since 1997, he has been the Santa Barbara director of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, and since 2001, he has chaired the Geography Department. He served as president of the Cartographic and Geographic Information Society for 2000-2001, chaired the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping’s Communications Committee until 2005, and was a 2005 winner of the USGS’s John Wesley Powell Award. In 2002-2003, Dr. Clarke chaired the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on the U.S. Geological Survey Concept of The National Map, and he is currently chair of the NRC’s Mapping Science Committee.


Marc P. Armstrong is professor and chair of the Department of Geography at the University of Iowa where he also holds an appointment in the



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Priorities for Geoint Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Keith C. Clarke (chair) is a research cartographer, professor, and chair of the Geography Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). He holds a B.A. degree with honors from Middlesex Polytechnic, London, England, and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, specializing in analytical cartography. Dr. Clarke’s recent research has been on environmental simulation modeling, on modeling urban growth using cellular automata, on terrain mapping and analysis, and on the history of the CORONA remote sensing program. He is the former North American editor of the International Journal of Geographical Information Systems and is series editor for the Prentice Hall Series in Geographic Information Science. In 1992 he served as science adviser to the Office of Research, National Mapping Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Reston, Virginia. Since 1997, he has been the Santa Barbara director of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, and since 2001, he has chaired the Geography Department. He served as president of the Cartographic and Geographic Information Society for 2000-2001, chaired the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping’s Communications Committee until 2005, and was a 2005 winner of the USGS’s John Wesley Powell Award. In 2002-2003, Dr. Clarke chaired the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on the U.S. Geological Survey Concept of The National Map, and he is currently chair of the NRC’s Mapping Science Committee. Marc P. Armstrong is professor and chair of the Department of Geography at the University of Iowa where he also holds an appointment in the

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Priorities for Geoint Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Graduate Program in Applied Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Dr. Armstrong’s Ph.D. is from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. A primary focus of his research is on the use of parallel processing to improve the performance of analysis methods used in spatial decision support systems. Other active areas of interest are in mobile computing, privacy aspects of geospatial technologies, and evolutionary computation. Dr. Armstrong has served as North American editor of the International Journal of Geographical Information Science, associate editor of Cartography and Geographic Information Science, co-director of Auto-Carto 11, and conference chair for GIS/LIS ’94. He now serves on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, and Geographical Analysis. Dr. Armstrong has published more than 100 academic papers including articles in a wide variety of peer-reviewed journals such as Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Environment and Planning A, B & C, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Geographical Analysis, Geographical Systems, Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, Statistics and Medicine, Mathematical Geology, Computers & Geosciences, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, and Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Budhendra L. Bhaduri is leader of the Geographic Information Science and Technology Group in the Computational Sciences and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He holds a Ph.D in earth and atmospheric sciences from Purdue University, M.S. degrees in geology from Kent State University and the University of Calcutta, India, and a B.Sc. with honors in geology from the University of Calcutta. Dr. Bhaduri conceives, designs, and implements innovative computational methods and simulation algorithms to solve a variety of problems in land cover modeling, natural resource management, emergency management, and transportation studies using geographic information system and image analysis techniques. Current projects include LandScan and LandScan USA (a high-resolution population distribution and population dynamics model and database); a systems-level model for advanced geospatial technologies using large-scale spatial data from the Tennessee Base Mapping program; an Image-to-Intelligence Archive for large-scale image databases; and a project to enhance intelligent consequence management with evolving spatial technologies. Dr. Bhaduri has published widely in the academic literature, provided technical reviews for a number of scientific journals, and is a lead theme writer on the first National R&D Plan for Critical Infrastructure Protection, Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate.

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Priorities for Geoint Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Barbara P. Buttenfield is professor and associate chair of the Geography Department at the University of Colorado in Boulder and director of the Meridian Lab, a research facility focusing on visualization and modeling of geographic information and technology. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Washington. Dr. Buttenfield’s research focuses on algorithms for web-based data delivery, multiscale geospatial database design, and visualization of uncertainty in environmental modeling. She was an original co-principal investigator (Buffalo site) for the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, leading research initiatives on multiple representations, formalizing cartographic knowledge, and visualizing spatial data quality. She was an original co-principal investigator for the Alexandria Digital Library Project, in collaboration with the University of California, Santa Barbara, and led the User Interface Evaluation team during its early years. Dr. Buttenfield spent a one-year research sabbatical at the U.S. Geological Survey National Mapping Division in Reston, Virginia (1993-1994), during which time she worked at the Library of Congress and participated in the Federal Geographic Data Committee efforts to develop and implement the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. She has co-edited two books: Map Generalization: Making Rules for Knowledge Representation (Longman, 1991) and Digital Library Use: Social Practice in Design and Evaluation (MIT Press, 2003). Dr. Buttenfield is a past president of the American Cartographic Association and a fellow of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM). She was a member of NRC’s Mapping Science Committee (1992-1998), the NRC Panel on Distributed Geolibraries (1997-1999), and the NRC Panel on Research Priorities in Geography at the U.S. Geological Survey (2001-2002). She currently serves on the editorial boards of the Annals of the Association of American Geographers (Methods, Models and Geographic Information Science), the URISA Electronic Journal, Cartographica, and Cartography and GIS. In 2001, she was named GIS Educator of the Year by the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science. Mark N. Gahegan is a professor of geography and associate director of the GeoVista Center at the Pennsylvania State University. His research interests are in geographic information science, visualization, semantic models of geography, geocomputation, digital remote sensing, artificial intelligence tools, spatial analysis, Voronoi diagrams, databases, and qualitative spatial reasoning. Dr. Gahegan’s editorial roles include Geographical Analysis, Cartographica, Transactions in GIS, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, and Computers & Geosciences. He is editor (Americas region) of the International Journal of Geographical Information Science and is a member of the international steering committee for the GeoComputation

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Priorities for Geoint Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency conference series. Dr. Gahegan directs two large open-source development projects: GeoVISTA Studio (www.geovistastudio.psu.edu), a visual problem-solving environment directed at supporting scientific analysis across a range of earth science applications and ConceptVista (www.geovista.psu.edu/Conceptvista), a concept mapping-ontology visualization and analysis environment. He is also a technical representative to the Open Geospatial Consortium. Dr. Gahegan received his B.S. at the University of Leeds, UK, and his Ph.D. from Curtin University, Australia. Michael J. Jackson has a chair in geospatial science and is director of the Centre for Geospatial Science at the University of Nottingham, UK. Prior to this appointment he was director, Space, at QinetiQ Ltd (previously the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency). He has a background in high-tech software and service organizations in both government and industry, with a focus on space and geospatial information. Dr. Jackson’s other previous appointments include being (1) head of Location Platform for Hutchison 3G responsible for the design and implementation of Hutchison Wampoa’s global 3G location-based mobile Internet services (2000-2002); (2) Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Laser-Scan Holdings (1986-2000); and (3) head of Thematic Information Services at the Natural Environment Research Council (1981-1986). He was a Nuffield and Leverhume Research Fellow between 1978 and 1979 (mainly in the United States, at the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of California, Santa Barbara), and from 1974 to 1978 was a senior research officer with the Planning Intelligence Directorate at the UK Department of the Environment. Dr. Jackson’s research interests are in geospatial interoperability, data conflation and fusion, geospatial intelligence, geospatial databases, and mobile communications. Dr. Jackson has a first-class honors degree and a Ph.D. from Manchester University and an honorary doctorate of technology from Kingston University. He is a fellow of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors and a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He is also a non-executive director of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and of other UK-based technology companies. Shashi Shekhar is a McKnight Distinguished University Professor of Computer Science and director of the Army High Performance Computing Research Center at the University of Minnesota. He received a B.Tech. degree in computer science from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, and an M.S. in business administration and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Shekhar was elected a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for contributions to spatial database storage methods, data mining, and geographic information systems. He is a co-editor-in-chief of Geo-

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Priorities for Geoint Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Informatica: An International Journal on Advances in Computer Science for GIS and is a member of the steering committee of the Association for Computer Machinery (ACM) International Conference on Geographic Information Systems. He served as a member of the Board of Directors of the University Consortium on GIS (2003-2004) and has served on the editorial boards of IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering and the IEEE-CS Computer Science & Engineering Practice Board. Dr. Shekhar also served as a program co-chair of the ACM International Workshop on Advances in Geographic Information Systems in 1996. He has provided technical advice to the United Nations Development Program, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Microsoft, Minnesota Department of Transportation, and Terradata. Dr. Shekhar co-authored a textbook on spatial databases and has published more than 160 research papers in peer-reviewed journals, books, conferences, and workshops. He is a member of the Mapping Science Committee of the National Research Council. Christopher Tucker is president and CEO of IONIC Enterprise, a company specializing in interoperable location-based services, web mapping, distributed geoprocessing, and g-commerce. He provides software architectural consultation and expertise for clients in C4ISR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance), earth observation, homeland security, e-government, and other sectors. Dr. Tucker was a founder and chief strategic officer of In-Q-Tel, the Central Intelligence Agency’s nonprofit venture capital fund. He developed In-Q-Tel’s overall strategy for tackling the agency’s priority information technology problems and managed technical projects; issues of organizational design; and relations with the intelligence community, industry, and media. Prior to In-Q-Tel, Dr. Tucker served as special adviser to the executive vice provost of Columbia University, where he also received his Ph.D., and was responsible for issues of strategic institutional development, research portfolio management, federal science and technology policy, and the organization of interdisciplinary research. He is an ex officio member of the Board of Directors of the Open Geospatial Consortium. National Research Council Staff Ann Frazier is a program officer with the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, coordinating mapping science activities. She has 23 years of experience in science and engineering, including 10 years with the USGS in geographic sciences. She focused on land cover change, urban growth, ecological modeling, and application of geographic analysis and remote sensing in interdisciplinary environmental studies. Prior to the USGS, Ann

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Priorities for Geoint Research at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency worked for 13 years in the aerospace industry on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Programs. Ann has a B.A. in physics-astronomy, an M.S. in space technology, a certificate in environmental management, and an M.S. in geography. Amanda M. Roberts is a senior program assistant with the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. Before coming to the Academies she interned at the Fund for Peace in Washington, D.C., working on the Human Rights and Business Roundtable. Amanda also worked in Equatorial Guinea, Africa, with the Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program. She is a master’s student at Johns Hopkins University in the Environment and Policy Program and holds an M.A in international peace and conflict resolution from Arcadia University, specializing in environmental conflict in sub-Saharan Africa.