term stewardship. Bottom-up, access privilege-based systems may hold enhanced promise to address some of the new issues raised by ecosystem considerations.

Existing laws and agency structures will need to be examined against a wider mandate to implement an ecosystem approach to management. Several regulatory mandates and agency programs have been created specifically to protect certain species, and they are especially important for species in danger of extinction. However, such single-species-focused mandates and programs may result in conflicting goals in a multi-species or ecosystem approach to management. Dissolution of these single-species protections is not the answer; rather, management institutions must recognize that one protection may preclude the other. An overarching mandate that allows explicit consideration of tradeoffs is needed to resolve the difficulties of reconciling the existing mandates.

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