how we manage data will be necessary. Finite resources require us to reassess available data and to revisit existing monitoring programs and data resources. However, we must prioritize data needs both for near- and long-term efforts with complex, multiple objectives.

Promising results have come from analyses and models at levels of synthesis above individual populations and individual food-web components. Some of the data, models, and knowledge are now sufficiently developed to be applied to evaluating ecosystem approaches to management. However, the derived management actions inevitably will be experiments in themselves—adding to a growing body of knowledge and creating an environment of adaptive management.

Clearly, moving forward requires science, management, and policy interacting constructively in synergy. We need to think outside of the box: incorporate new ideas, new analyses, new models, and new data, and perhaps most importantly, establish the social and institutional climates that will catalyze creative, long-term, comparative, and synthetic science of food webs and communities applied to exploited ecosystems. Data needs in support of ecosystem-based management will likely be more than the simple sum of currently available single-species information. Diet data and strengths of linkages between species and life-history stages will be as important as population abundance data. A rich array of social science, economic science, and policy considerations is essential because many more tradeoffs among ecosystem components and stakeholders are likely to be apparent. Science will be challenged to provide policy-relevant options in this new context; managers will be challenged to broaden their concerns and experiment openly; and policy makers will be challenged to act unselfishly in behalf of the broader community of people who value and depend on ocean ecosystems.

This chapter presents the need for research on food-web interactions, spatially explicit data, complete historical time series, and scientifically useful definitions of ecosystem boundaries. There is also discussion of future needs in valuation of nonmarket services, fishing behavior, and integrated bioeconomic modeling.

IMPROVING ECOSYSTEM MODELS AND SCENARIO ANALYSIS

Choosing goals and standards that would be appropriate for food-web and community management is a worthy but formidable challenge. As discussed in the previous chapter, such approaches will be important in any comprehensive fisheries management planning and will likely include consideration of a wider variety of ecosystem services than the food and economics of fish yields. However, if model-based scenario analysis is to be used more extensively in fisheries management applications, many variables must be better defined and understood to reduce the inherent uncertainty.

Models in marine science and fisheries range from whole-system ecosystem models to single-species population models; many have been around for decades,



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