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D Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers Carol (Cory) J. Baker-Fulco, M.S., R.D., is a research dietitian in the Military Nutrition Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medi- cine. She received a Master of Science degree in nutrition from the University of Bridgeport, Connecticut. She serves as a principal investigator responsible for applied research in support of studies on nutrition and operational medicine. Her research area includes assessment of the dietary and nutritional status of military personnel and evaluation of feeding systems and operational rations. Her areas of concentration include and dietary assessment, sports nutrition, nutrient re- quirements in environmental extremes, and nutrition education. Ms. Baker-Fulco developed Performance Power: The Nutrition Connection program, a video- based sports nutrition education program for military personnel distributed Army wide. Ms. Baker-Fulco is a member of the American Dietetic Association, the Research Dietitian Practice Group, and the Practice Group on Sports, Cardio- vascular, and Wellness Nutrition. John L. Beard, Ph.D., is a professor of nutrition in the Department of Nutrition at Pennsylvania State University. He earned degrees in organic chemistry in 1970 (B.S.), and 1972 (M.S.) from the Stevens Institute of Technology and the University of CaliforniaSanta Cruz, respectively; and his Ph.D. degree from Cornell University (1979) in human nutrition. His research interests include: role of iron in dopamine metabolism and action; effect of early life iron deficiency on brain development and functioning; relationship of brain iron metabolism to monoamine metabolism in Restless Legs Syndrome and; food based approaches to the eradication of iron deficiency. Dr. Beard serves as an associate editor of the Journal of Nutrition. 470

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APPENDIX D 471 Joseph G. Cannon, Ph.D., is a professor in the Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Technologies at the Medical College of Georgia (MCG), and Asso- ciate Dean for Research in the School of Allied Health Sciences at MCG. For- merly, he was a professor of applied physiology at the Pennsylvania State Uni- versity. He earned his Ph.D. in physiology from the University of Michigan, his M.S. in engineering from the University of California at Los Angeles, and his B.S. in engineering from Michigan State University. Dr. Cannon's primary re- search interests include (a) immunological mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle repair following injury, and (b) nutritional and hormonal influences on leukocyte function. He holds the Kellett Chair in Allied Health Sciences at MCG. Dr. Cannon has served on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Physi- ology and Journal of Applied Physiology, and is the author or co-author of over 100 articles in scientific publications. Gerald F. Combs, Jr., Ph.D., is center director of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. He also is Profes- sor Emeritus at the Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, and an adjunct professor in the School of Medicine at the University of North Dakota. Previously, he was a professor of nutrition in the Division of Nutritional Sci- ences at Cornell University, having been on that faculty since 1975. Dr. Combs earned his B.S. degree in zoology in 1969, his M.S. degree in entomology in 1971, and his Ph.D. degree in nutrition in 1973. Dr. Combs is internationally recognized for his research in the nutritional biochemistry of trace elements and vitamins. His special interests have concerned the metabolism and physiological actions of the antioxidant nutrients selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, and factors that can affect their metabolic functions and dietary needs (e.g., vitamin A, caro- tenoids, iron, copper, zinc), particularly as they relate to health maintenance in and reduction of chronic disease (e.g., cancer) risks in humans and animals. J. Mark Davis, Ph.D., is a professor and director of Graduate Programs and Re- search in the Department of Exercise Science, which is part of the University of South Carolina's Arnold School of Public Health. He's been there almost 22 years since completing a Ph.D. degree at Purdue University in exercise physiology/ neuroscience followed by a post-doctoral fellowship in neuroendocrinology at Mt. Sinai Medical School in New York. He is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine where he is currently a member of the Board of Trustees. He also serves on the Sports Medicine Review Board of the Gatorade Sports Science Insti- tute. Davis is an international authority (> 95 publications) on the effects of exer- cise and nutrition on (1) mental and physical fatigue and (2) immune function as related to defense against infection and cancer. His current research funding in- cludes, among others, a large grant from the U.S. Army to develop novel herbal supplements to delay mental and physical fatigue, enhance recovery from intense exercise, and optimize immune function in soldiers.

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472 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL Monika Fleshner, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Inte- grative Physiology, a member of the Center for Neuroscience, and director of the Neuroimmunophysiology laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boul- der. Dr. Fleshner received her Ph.D. in behavioral neuroscience from the Uni- versity of Colorado in 1990, and completed postdoctoral work in Immunology at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center 1992. Dr. Fleshner is interested in understanding the impact of acute and chronic stress (mental, physical, or aging) on many aspects of integrative physiology. Specifically, her research examines the impact of stress on behavior, neural, hormonal and immunological function and how these systems interact to affect the whole organism She has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles, serves as a re- viewer for over a dozen scientific journals, and is an assistant editor for the Journal of Applied Physiology. Karl E. Friedl, Ph.D., is the commander of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts, a laboratory specialized in human performance and metabolic responses in harsh environments. Prior to this assignment, Colonel Friedl directed the Military Operational Medicine Research Program at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command in Fred- erick, Maryland, including management of the DoD Gulf War Illnesses research portfolio and Congressional special interest programs such as bone health re- search, neurotoxin exposure treatment (Parkinson's) research, nutrition research, and the Defense Womens' Health Research Program. In earlier assignments he specialized in physiological limits of prolonged, intensive military training and endocrine physiology. He received his Ph.D. in physiology in 1984 from the Institute of Environmental Stress at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He has published original articles on diverse physiological investigations such as: functional consequences of semi starvation in high intensity field training; body composition methods and standards for DoD fitness regulations; nerve agent antidote delivery systems; steroid regulation of spermatogenesis for poten- tial male contraception; and noninvasive physiological measurement systems to monitor hemorrhage and resuscitation. Jere D. Haas, Ph.D., is the Nancy Schlegel Meinig Professor of Maternal and Child Nutrition in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University. He received his Ph.D. in biological anthropology from the Pennsylvania State Univer- sity and has been on the Cornell faculty for 30 years. He is currently conducting research on the functional consequences of iron deficiency on physical and repro- ductive performance. The emphasis is on the effects of moderate iron deficiency on various aspects of physical performance and behavior in young women and how measures of performance relate to everyday productivity and social and eco- nomic well-being. He conducts research on this and related topics in maternal and child nutrition in the United States, Mexico, the Philippines, Guatemala, Bolivia,

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APPENDIX D 473 and Bangladesh. Dr. Haas served as vice-president and president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and serves on the Expert Advisory Panel for Nutrition of the World Health Organization and the Technical Advisory Group on Food and Nutrition of the Pan American Health Organization. He served as director of the Division of Nutritional Science at Cornell from 1998 to 2003. Davidson H. Hamer, M.D., is an associate professor of international health at the Boston University School of Public Health, an adjunct associate professor of nutrition at the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, and a visiting scientist in the Department of Nutritional Immunology at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center. Dr. Hamer is based at the Center for International Health and Development where he provides the lead technical support for applied research on micronutrients, malaria, and neo- natal diseases as well as technical support for the diarrheal disease, respiratory disease, and antimicrobial resistance programs. During the last decade, Dr. Hamer has worked closely with local scientists on policy-relevant research in- volving evaluations of interventions for the treatment and prevention of malaria, micronutrient deficiencies, diarrheal disease, and acute respiratory infections in young children in resource-poor countries. Emily M. Haymes, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences at Florida State University. She received her B.A. from Drury College in 1961, her M.S. from Florida State University in 1962, and her Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University in 1973. Prior to joining the faculty at Florida State in 1979, she taught at the University of ColoradoBoulder for five years. An exercise physiologist, her primary research interests are iron depletion in athletes, field measurements of physical activity and energy expenditure, and the response of males and females to exercise in warm and cold environments. She co-authored the book The Environment and Human Performance with Christine Wells. Dr. Haymes has published papers in several journals including the Journal of Applied Physiology, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, International Journal of Sports Medicine, International Journal of Sport Nutri- tion, Exercise Metabolism, and the Physician and Sportsmedicine. Dr. Haymes served a three-year term as president of the Research Consortium and a two-year term as vice president of the American College of Sports Medicine. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Amer- ican College of Sports Medicine, and the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. Steven B. Heymsfield, M.D., is the executive director of clinical sciences at Merck pharmaceutical company. In this capacity he leads clinical obesity drug development in Company's metabolism division. Dr. Heymsfield was the former director of the Human Body Composition Laboratory and Weight Control Unit

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474 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL and the deputy director of the NIH-supported New York Obesity Research Cen- ter at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital. In addition, he was a professor of medicine at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and a visiting scien- tist at Rockefeller University and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Dr. Heymsfield maintains an appointment at the medical center and his research there continues. Dr. Heymsfield received his bachelor's degree from Hunter Col- lege in New York, and his degree in medicine from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. He completed his medical internship and residency at Emory University in Atlanta, continuing on to become a fellow in medicine prior to his Columbia appointments in 1986. He moved to Merck in November of 2004. Dr. Heymsfield has published more than 300 articles covering topics such as obesity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, malnutrition, pregnancy, body composition, and caloric expenditure. He developed a mathematical expression, the lithogenic index, for characterizing bile proclivity for cholesterol gallstone formation that has been used worldwide for over two decades. Janet R. Hunt, Ph.D., R.D., is the research leader of the Micronutrient Absorp- tion and Metabolism Unit at the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS) Human Nutrition Research Center in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and is an adjunct professor of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Dakota. Dr. Hunt received her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of Minnesota. An active member of the American Society for Clini- cal Nutrition, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the International BioIron Society and the American Dietetic Association (ADA), she has served on the ADA board of directors and the ADA journal's editorial board, and has co-authored ADA's Position Statements on Vitamin and Mineral Supplements. Dr. Hunt investigates human iron and zinc requirements as influenced by dietary bioavailability, and has published extensively on these topics. Carl Keen, Ph.D., is a professor in nutrition and internal medicine and chair of the Department of Nutrition, University of CaliforniaDavis. He has served on numerous government boards. He has been a member of California's Scientific Advisory Board for the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment since 1993. He has been a member of EPA Environmental Health Grant Review Pan- els (19901999), USDA Human Nutrient Requirements Study (19871992), and several NIH panels (Nutrition Study Section 19971999; ALTOX Study Section 20022004; XNDA Study Section 2004present). He is past president of the California Nutrition Council (1998). He is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the American Society of Clinical Nutrition, the Teratol- ogy Society, the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, and the Ameri- can Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Keen has served on numer- ous editorial boards and has chaired and organized national and international scientific conferences.

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APPENDIX D 475 Cathy W. Levenson, Ph.D., is currently an associate professor in the Depart- ment of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, and in the Program in Neuro- science at Florida State University. She holds a B.A. in neurobiology from the University of Virginia, an M.S. from the Department of Nutrition at Florida State University, and a Ph.D. from the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago. Her research is focused on the role of the trace metals zinc, copper, and iron in the central nervous system with a particular interest in the role these nutrients play in gene expression that directs neuronal death and survival. Harris R. Lieberman, Ph.D., is a research psychologist in the Military Nutri- tion Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) in Natick, Massachusetts. Dr. Lieberman is an internationally rec- ognized expert in the area of nutrition and behavior and has published over 125 original, full-length papers in scientific journals and edited books. He has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences, govern- ment research laboratories and universities. Dr. Lieberman received his Ph.D. in physiological psychology in 1977 from the University of Florida and then con- ducted postdoctoral research at the Department of Psychology and Brain Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). From 19801990, he was on the research staff at MIT where he examined the effects of food constituents and drugs on human behavior and brain function. In 1990, Dr. Lieberman joined the civilian research staff of USARIEM where he has continued his work in nutrition, behavior and stress. From 1994 to 2000, he was chief or deputy chief of the Military Nutrition program at USARIEM. His recent research has ad- dressed the effects of various nutritional factors, diets and environmental stress on animal and human performance, brain function and behavior. His work has focused on developing and applying a variety of emerging technologies in nutri- tion, neuroscience and microelectronics to sustaining and enhancing human per- formance in stressful environments. He holds two patents for novel technologies to assess and enhance cognitive performance. Dr. Lieberman currently chairs an International Defense Panel on Protection and Sustainment of Human Physical and Cognitive Performance. Henry C. Lukaski, Ph.D., is assistant center director and research physiologist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center and adjunct professor of medicine, and physical education and exercise science at the University of North Dakota. Since receiving his Ph.D. in physiology with a minor in nutrition from the Pennsylva- nia State University, Dr. Lukaski has developed a productive research program in determining functional roles of bioactive components of food, including min- eral elements, and developing methods for human body composition assessment. He has published numerous articles and reviews in peer reviewed journals, book chapters, and position papers for professional organizations. He has provided

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476 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL consultation and advice to the World Health Organization, Medical Subcom- mittee of the International Olympic Committee and U.S. Olympic Committee, federal organizations including National Institutes of Health, Department of De- fense and National Aeronautics and Space Agency, and research and develop- ment organizations such as Gatorade and GlaxoSmithKline. He has served or is a member of the editorial boards of British Journal of Nutrition, Journal of Nutrition, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Metabolism, Nutrition, International Journal of Applied Sports Science, Current Nutrition and Food Science, and CRC Press Series on Nutrition and Sport. Dr. Lukaski is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, Human Biology Council and the Mexican Institute of Nutrition. Jeri W. Nieves, Ph.D., is from the Helen Hayes Hospital in New York, where she is director of bone density testing. Dr. Nieves is also an assistant professor of clinical epidemiology at Columbia University. Dr. Nieves has co-authored over 60 journal articles, reviews, and book chapters on nutrition, epidemiology, and osteoporosis. She is a graduate of Columbia University where she received her Ph.D. in epidemiology, following a Masters degree in nutrition from Cornell University. Her current main interest is in calcium and vitamin D and the pre- vention and treatment of osteoporosis. She is a recipient of a grant from the National Institute of Health to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation for osteoporosis treatment in black postmenopausal women. She is currently work- ing on two studies of young adults to determine the role of nutrition, exercise and menstrual function on peak bone mass and stress fractures. She serves on the Editorial Board of Osteoporosis International. James G. Penland, Ph.D., is a research psychologist with the USDA, Agricul- tural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, and ad- junct professor of psychology at the University of North Dakota, where he re- ceived his doctoral degree in experimental cognitive psychology in 1984. Dr. Penland directs a comprehensive research program to study the effects of min- eral nutrition (including copper, iron, magnesium, selenium, and zinc) on a broad range of human and animal neuropsychological function and behavior through- out the life span. During the past 20 years, Dr. Penland has conducted metabolic unit and community based feeding and supplementation studies, and designed and implemented a mobile nutrition laboratory for studies in schools, nursing homes, and rural communities. In addition to many research collaborations in the United States, Dr. Penland has participated in nutrition studies in Guatemala, New Zealand and the Peoples Republic of China. Dr. Penland has authored or co-authored nearly 100 scientific publications and served on many expert panels and scientific advisory groups. Dr. Penland has been honored as a Distinguished Alumni at the University of North Dakota and received the USDA Honor Award for Excellence.

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APPENDIX D 477 Susan S. Percival, Ph.D., is a professor of nutritional sciences in the Depart- ment of Food Science and Human Nutrition at the University of Florida. Her educational background includes an M.S. degree from the University of Califor- niaDavis, and a Ph.D. from the University of TexasAustin. She did post- doctoral research in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at Texas A&M University. From 1978 to 1981 she was tenure track faculty at the Univer- sity of Rhode Island prior to an educational leave to pursue her doctorate. At the University of Florida, she was an undergraduate coordinator for over 700 under- graduate students from 1994 to 2002. Dr. Percival is a member of several profes- sional organizations including the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and the Institute of Food Technologists. She has been a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition since 2000 and previously served as an IFT Scientific Lecturer. She is completing a leave of absence from the University of Florida at the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention, Nutritional Sciences Research Group. Her current research deals with how dietary components influence immunity. Michael N. Sawka, Ph.D., is chief of the Thermal and Mountain Medicine Di- vision at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Dr. Sawka's research interests are environmental (heat, cold, altitude) and exercise physiology, fluid/electrolyte balance, and rehabilitation medicine. He has pub- lished over 285 full-length scientific papers as well as edited graduate textbooks on environmental physiology and on exercise physiology. He has presented over 65 invited Symposia and Keynote Lectures at scientific meetings. Dr. Sawka is a member of several editorial boards including American Journal of Physiology, Journal of Applied Physiology, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, International Journal of Sports Medicine. He served on many scientific panels and professional committees such as those for the Institute of Medicine; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Anti-Doping Agency; Olympic Scientific Committees. He is active within the American Physiological Society and the American Col- lege of Sports Medicine. He is frequently cited and interviewed by the press. John F. Sheridan, Ph.D., is a professor of immunology and director of a T32 training grant titled Comprehensive Training in Oral and Craniofacial Biology. He currently holds the George C. Paffenbarger Alumni Endowed Research Chair, and is the associate director of the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at the Ohio State University. He received a B.S. degree in biology from Fordham University, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in microbiology from the Waksman Institute of Microbiology at Rutgers University. He did postdoctoral training in microbiology/immunology at the Duke University Medical Center and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. He is a founding member and past president of the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society. His major research interests in- clude neuroendocrine regulation of gene expression in inflammatory and im-

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478 MINERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL mune responses, stress-induced susceptibility to infectious disease, viral patho- genesis, and host immunity. Connie M. Weaver, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor and head of the Depart- ment of Foods & Nutrition at Purdue UniversityWest Lafayette, Indiana. In 2000, she also became director of a National Institutes of Health funded Botani- cal Center to study dietary supplements containing polyphenolics for age-related diseases. Her research interests include mineral bioavailability, calcium metabo- lism, and bone health. Dr. Weaver is past-president of American Society for Nutritional Sciences and is on the board of trustees of the International Life Sciences Institute. For her contributions in teaching, Dr. Weaver was awarded Purdue University's Outstanding Teaching Award. In 1993, she was honored with the Purdue University Health Promotion Award for Women, and in 1997, she received the Institute of Food Technologists Babcock Hart Award. In April 2003, she received the USDA A.O. Atwater Lecturership Award at the annual Experimental Biology meeting. Dr. Weaver was appointed to the 2005 U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. She has published over 100 research articles. Dr. Weaver received a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in food science and human nutrition from Oregon State University. She received a Ph.D. in food science and human nutrition from Florida State University and holds minors in chemistry and plant physiology. Andrew J. Young, Ph.D., is a research physiologist and chief of the Military Nutrition Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medi- cine (USARIEM) in Natick, Massachusetts. He obtained a B.S. in biology at Virginia Military Institute, and a Ph.D. in physiology at North Carolina State University, and then served in the U.S. Army with assignments at USARIEM (19771981) and at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (19811983). After leaving the Army, Dr. Young continued as a civilian scientist at USARIEM. His research has concerned the biological basis for, and strategies to mitigate performance degradations in people experiencing intense physical exertion, sleep restriction, nutritional deprivation and exposure to extremes of heat, cold, and high altitude, all of which are characteristics of sustained combat operations. Dr. Young is a member of the American Physiological Society, a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine. He is also associate editor-in-chief of the American College of Sports Medicine's flagship scientific journal, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, and was recently named to become editor-in- chief for that journal beginning in July of 2005.