on the timing, location, and content of media exposure, DiClemente pointed out, but he argued that much more can be done. Greater use of industry-wide codes, the creation of alternative music videos and video games with more positive content, and the development of prosocial strategies can all help inoculate teenagers against the negative messages to which they are exposed. Further research to better define the associations among media exposure, high-risk behavior, and adverse health outcomes is clearly needed, DiClemente argued. The larger point was clear, however: the vast majority of teenagers are exposed to a heavy diet of television, music, video games, and other media that contain violence, sexual situations, and other high-risk behaviors, and not enough is known about how the duration, intensity, timing, or content of exposure affects them.


These observations about the causal influences and associations with problem behaviors that influence adolescent health and development led to further discussion about positive influences and preventive strategies that can support positive trajectories and diminish negative risks and disorders. The workshop participants suggested that it would be helpful to understand more about the relationships among increased supports (such as connectedness with family and communities), youth engagement with school and social groups, and positive outcomes or absence of negative outcomes. These issues helped to frame the discussion in the following chapter, which focuses on the theory of positive development and the importance of opportunities and social settings in adolescent health and development.

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