hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Also known as attention deficit disorder (ADD).

Autoimmune Referring to or caused by autoantibodies or white blood cells that attack molecules, cells, or tissues of the organism producing them.

BEARS A 5-step pediatric sleep screening form to identify sleep problems (B = bedtime issues, E = excessive daytime sleepiness, A = night awakenings, R = regularity and duration of sleep, S = snoring).

Body mass index (BMI) A measure of body fat that is the ratio of the weight of the body in kilograms to the square of its height in meters.

Carotid body A small body of vascular tissue that is able to sense changes in the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and to mediate reflex changes in respiration.

Cataplexy A symptom of narcolepsy, characterized by a sudden loss of muscle control with retention of clear consciousness in response to a strong emotional stimulus.

Catecholamine An amine (such as norepinephrine or dopamine), derived from tyrosine, that functions as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or both.

Central sleep apnea Cessation of breathing during sleep that is caused a disturbance in the brain’s respiratory center.

Cerebral cortex The surface layer of the brain’s gray matter, which coordinates sensory and motor information.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) A liquid that is secreted from the blood into the internal cavities in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain and circulates through the cavities to the spaces formed between the brain or spinal cord and the surrounding membranes; serves chiefly to maintain uniform pressure within the brain and spinal cord.

Chemoreflex A physiological reflex initiated in a chemoreceptor or in response to a chemical stimulus.

CHQ-PF50 A parent report measure of children’s physical, emotional, and social functional status and well-being.

Chronobiology The science of biological rhythms.

Circadian rhythms 24-hour periods or cycles of biological activity or function.

Cognitive therapy Psychotherapeutic method aimed at changing faulty beliefs and attitudes about sleep, insomnia, and the next-day consequences. Other cognitive strategies are used to control intrusive thoughts at bed-time and prevent excessive monitoring of the daytime consequences of insomnia.

Confusional arousal One type of disorder of arousal associated with NREM sleep. Individuals display mental confusion or confusional behavior during or following arousal, typically from slow-wave sleep.

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