. "3 Extent and Health Consequences of Chronic Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders." Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
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Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem
Manifestations and Prevalence
Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviors or experiences that occur during entry into sleep, during sleep, or during arousals from sleep (AASM, 2005). They are categorized as primary parasomnias, which predominantly occur during the sleep state, and secondary parasomnias, which are complications associated with disorders of organ systems that occur during sleep. Primary parasomnias can further be classified depending on which sleep state they originate in, REM sleep, NREM, or others that can occur during either state (Table 3-4).
Parasomnias typically manifest themselves during transition periods from one state of sleep to another, during which time the brain activity is reorganizing (Mahowald and Schenck, 2005). Activities associated with parasomnias are characterized by being potentially violent or injurious, disruptive to other household members, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, or associated with medical, psychiatric, or neurological conditions (Mahowald and Ettinger, 1990).
Disorders of Arousal, NREM
Disorders of arousal are the most common type of parasomnia, occurring in as much as 4 percent of the adult population (Ohayon et al., 1999) and up to 17 percent of children (Klackenberg, 1982). Typically the arousals occur during the first 60 to 90 minutes of sleep and do not cause full awakenings, but rather partial arousal from deep NREM sleep. Disorders of arousal manifest in a variety of ways, from barely audible mumbling, disoriented sleepwalking, to frantic bouts of shrieking and flailing of limbs (Wills and Garcia, 2002).
Individuals who experience confusional arousals exhibit confused mental and behavioral activity following arousals from sleep. They are often disoriented in time and space, display slow speech, and blunted answers to questions (AASM, 2005). Episodes of resistive and even violent behavior can last several minutes to hours. Confusional arousals are more than three to four times more prevalent in children compared to individuals 15 years or older (around 3 percent) (Ohayon et al., 2000). They can be precipitated by forced arousals, particularly early in an individual’s sleep cycle.