Appendix F
Waste Retrieval Status

TABLE F-1 Status of Tank Waste Retrieval Operations at the Three Sites

Site

Tank Identifier

Nominal Tank Capacity (gallons)

Volume of the heel (gallons) (percentage of initial volume)

Radioactivity in the heel (percentage of initial radioactivity)

Residual Waste Retrieval Technology Used

Comments

Savannah River Site (51 tanks)

Tank 16a

1.06 million

9.5 kg solidsa

830 Ci (30.7 TBq)

Water washing, chemical cleaning

Completed to the limit of technologies. Most of the radioactivity is due to insoluble strontium-90 inventory. The tank annulus requires additional cleaning.

 

Tank 17b

1.3 million

2,200 gallons sludge

2,400 Ci (89 TBq)

Water washing, Sluicing and pumping

Completed (closed)

 

Tank 20b

1.3 million

1,000 gallons sludge

500 Ci (18.5 TBq)

Sluicing and pumping

Completed (closed)

 

Tank 18b

1.3 million

4,300 gallons wet solids

27,600 Ci (1.02 PBq)

Sluicing and pumping

Completed. Most of the radioactivity is due to cesium-137 and barium-137 trapped in residual zeolites (46% of the heel volume and ~88% of the total curies). Strontium-90 and yttrium-90 make up another ~10% of the radioactivity

 

Tank 19b

1.3 million

15,100 gallons wet solids

96,000 Ci (3.6 PBq)

Sluicing and pumping

Most of the radioactivity is due to cesium-137 and barium-137 trapped in residual zeolites (66% of the heel volume and ~99% of the total radioactivity)

Hanford

C-106c

530,000

2,768 gallons (370 cubic feet)

136,700 Ci (5.06 PBq)

Modified sluicing, oxalic acid dissolution

Completed to the limit of technologies. Most of the radioactivity is due to insoluble strontium-90 inventory

 

C-203d

55,000

138 gallons (18.5 cubic feet)

36 Ci (1.3 TBq)

Vacuum retrieval system

Completed

 

C-202e

55,000

147 gallons

Results not available

Vacuum retrieval system

Completed

 

S-102f

758,000

321,000 gallons (in progress)

Results not available

Modified sluicing, saltcake dissolution

Retrieval still under way



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Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report Appendix F Waste Retrieval Status TABLE F-1 Status of Tank Waste Retrieval Operations at the Three Sites Site Tank Identifier Nominal Tank Capacity (gallons) Volume of the heel (gallons) (percentage of initial volume) Radioactivity in the heel (percentage of initial radioactivity) Residual Waste Retrieval Technology Used Comments Savannah River Site (51 tanks) Tank 16a 1.06 million 9.5 kg solidsa 830 Ci (30.7 TBq) Water washing, chemical cleaning Completed to the limit of technologies. Most of the radioactivity is due to insoluble strontium-90 inventory. The tank annulus requires additional cleaning.   Tank 17b 1.3 million 2,200 gallons sludge 2,400 Ci (89 TBq) Water washing, Sluicing and pumping Completed (closed)   Tank 20b 1.3 million 1,000 gallons sludge 500 Ci (18.5 TBq) Sluicing and pumping Completed (closed)   Tank 18b 1.3 million 4,300 gallons wet solids 27,600 Ci (1.02 PBq) Sluicing and pumping Completed. Most of the radioactivity is due to cesium-137 and barium-137 trapped in residual zeolites (46% of the heel volume and ~88% of the total curies). Strontium-90 and yttrium-90 make up another ~10% of the radioactivity   Tank 19b 1.3 million 15,100 gallons wet solids 96,000 Ci (3.6 PBq) Sluicing and pumping Most of the radioactivity is due to cesium-137 and barium-137 trapped in residual zeolites (66% of the heel volume and ~99% of the total radioactivity) Hanford C-106c 530,000 2,768 gallons (370 cubic feet) 136,700 Ci (5.06 PBq) Modified sluicing, oxalic acid dissolution Completed to the limit of technologies. Most of the radioactivity is due to insoluble strontium-90 inventory   C-203d 55,000 138 gallons (18.5 cubic feet) 36 Ci (1.3 TBq) Vacuum retrieval system Completed   C-202e 55,000 147 gallons Results not available Vacuum retrieval system Completed   S-102f 758,000 321,000 gallons (in progress) Results not available Modified sluicing, saltcake dissolution Retrieval still under way

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Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report Site Tank Identifier Nominal Tank Capacity (gallons) Volume of the heel (gallons) (percentage of initial volume) Radioactivity in the heel (percentage of initial radioactivity) Residual Waste Retrieval Technology Used Comments Hanford S-112f 758,000 23,000 gallons Results not available Modified sluicing, saltcake dissolution, Salt Mantis Retrieval complete to the limit of technology for modified sluicing and saltcake dissolution; additional technology (Salt Mantis) deployed, retrieval still in progress Idahog WM-180 300,000 7,600 gallons liquidsg 542 kg solids 1,047 Ci (38.7 TBq) Pumping and water washing     WM-181 300,000 7,300 gallons liquidsg 246 kg solids 475 Ci (17.6 TBq) Pumping and water washing     WM-182 300,000 6500 gallons liquidsg 1238 kg solids 2,394 Ci (88.6 TBq) Pumping and water washing     WM-183 300,000 8000 gallons liquidsg 702 kg solids 1,363 Ci (50.4 TBq) Pumping and water washing     WM-184 300,000 3100 gallons liquidsg 558 kg solids 1,077 Ci (39.8 TBq) Pumping and water washing     WM-185 300,000 5800 gallons liquidsg 720 kg solids 1,391 Ci + 3,850 Ci in the sandpad (194 TBq ) Pumping and water washing     WM-186 300,000 6,600 gallons liquidsg 334 kg solids 646 Ci (23.9 TBq) Pumping and water washing     WM-103 30,000 19 kg solids 37 Ci (1.4 TBq) Pumping and water washing Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank   WM-104 30,000 19 kg solids 37 Ci (1.4 TBq) Pumping and water washing Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank   WM-105 30,000 19 kg solids 37 Ci (1.4 TBq) Pumping and water washing Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank   WM-106 30,000 19 kg solids 37 Ci (1.4 TBq) Pumping and water washing Conservative estimates of solids based on a biological film layer at the bottom of the tank NOTE: Only tanks that had most waste retrieved at the time of writing (December 2005) are shown; other tanks may be in process. The table has been fact-checked by the three sites. a Fowler, 1981. b DOE-SRS, 2005a. c Hewitt, and Sams, 2005. d Quintero, 2005b. e. Quintero, 2005b. f Dodd, 2005. g DOE-ID, 2005a. h A volume of flush water is left in the tanks after the last wash cycle, to allow for sampling, keep any remaining solids in a state to allow further removal during the grouting phase, and allow enough volume to permit restart of the transfer jets during tank grouting. During the tank grouting phase,the transfer jets will be operated to remove the remaining liquid and whatever solid particles come with it.

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Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report TABLE F-2 Summary of Main Waste Retrieval Tools in DOE’s Toolbox Mobilization or Collection Technique Tool Considered or Developed Tool Tested Tool Deployed “Wet” technologies       Mixing or sluicing technologies       Low pressure (<1000 psi)     Slurry pumps (several SRS tanks); waterbrush (SRS Tank 17); Flygt Mixer (SRS Tanks 17 and 19); bladed agitators (several SRS tanks— small processing vessels); Advanced Design Mixer Pump (SRS Tank 18); Hanford C-103 Sluicer (Hanford Tank C-103); Hanford C-106 Sluicer (Hanford Tank C-106);washball or directional nozzle wash system (INL tanks) Moderate pressure (1,000 < psi < 3,000)     Borehole miner (several ORNL tanks); water mouse (SRS Tank 17) High-pressure (>3,000 psi)     Hydrolaser/hydrolance (SRS Tank 19); Salt Mantis (Hanford S-112); Confined Sluicing End Effector (CSEE; ORNL); bilateral sluicers (SRS Type I Tanks) Pulsating mixing devices   AEA Technology Power Fluidics (cold tested at Hanford)       Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump (PMP) (tested at PNNL and at ORNL)   Chemical cleaning       Using sluicing     Modified sluicing and acid dissolution (Hanford tank C-106) Using mixers     Oxalic acid (SRS Tanks 16 and 24) Dry or semidry technologies       Vacuum     Vacuum retrieval system (Hanford C-202, C-203, C-201) Scarifier or grinder Rail or pneumatic wheel-based systems used in the mining industry (never tested or deployed in DOE tanks); dry retrieval system (considered for Hanford Tank C-104 but never deployed)   Burnishing tool (deployed at West Valley); scarifier (deployed at ORNL using both the Houdini™ and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) Mechanical conveyance systems       Deployment devices or delivery tools       Simple mast Delphinus (never deployed)   Vacuum retrieval system (Hanford Tanks C-202, C-203, C-201), Mast Tool Delivery System (West Valley Tank 8D-1) Multijoined arm SRS Crawler (designed for deployment in SRS Tank 19 but never deployed), VAC TRAX (never deployed), Pit Hog (never deployed), ESG/LATA Trac-Pump (never deployed) EMMA (tested for use at Fernald but never deployed), ReTRIEVR (tested for use at Fernald but never deployed), Tarzan (partially built for use at West Valley but never completed) Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) and MLDUA (Oak Ridge)

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Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, and On-Site Disposal at Three Department of Energy Sites: Final Report Mobilization or Collection Technique Tool Considered or Developed Tool Tested Tool Deployed In-tank vehicle   ARD (never deployed in a tank but used in SRS B-Area solvent tanks) Houdini™ (deployed at ORNL), Scarab-3 (deployed at ORNL) Combined systems       Vacuum plus in-tank vehicle   Mobile retrieval system (tested at the Hanford Cold Test Facility)   Scarifier plus in-tank vehicle Grinding mechanism used in combination with the Delphinus arm   Scarifier deployed via Houdini™ (ORNL) Vacuum plus surface system     Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System (deployed at ORNL) NOTES: Some tools have been considered or developed in a laboratory setting. Some tools have been tested in a cold test facility. Some tools have been deployed in actual waste tanks (location in parenthesis). Deployment implies previous development and cold testing as well. Status indicates if and where device was deployed or tested. INL = Idaho National Laboratory; ORNL = Oak Ridge National Laboratory; PNNL = Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; SRS = Savannah River Site. SOURCES: Davis, 1998; Bogen et al., 1999; DOE-TFA, 2000a; Bamberger et al., 2001; Burks, 2005; DOE-SRS, 2005a.