Schneider S, Zwemer F, Doniger A, Dick R, Czapranski T, Davis E. 2001. Rochester, New York: A decade of emergency department overcrowding. Academic Emergency Medicine 8(11):1044–1050.

Schull MJ, Lazier K, Vermeulen M, Mawhinney S, Morrison LJ. 2003. Emergency department contributors to ambulance diversion: A quantitative analysis. Annals of Emergency Medicine 41(4):467–476.

Siddharthan K, Jones WJ, Johnson JA. 1996. A priority queuing model to reduce waiting times in emergency care. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 9(5):10–16.

Sinclair D, Green R. 1998. Emergency department observation unit: Can it be funded through reduced inpatient admission? Annals of Emergency Medicine 32(6):670–675.

Solberg LI, Asplin BR, Weinick RM, Magid DJ. 2003. Emergency department crowding: Consensus development of potential measures. Annals of Emergency Medicine 42(6):824–834.

Southard PA, Hedges JR, Hunter JG, Ungerleider RM. 2005. Impact of a transfer center on interhospital referrals and transfers to a tertiary care center. Academic Emergency Medicine 12(7):653–657.

Starfield B. 2000. Is U.S. health really the best in the world? Journal of the American Medical Association 284(4):483–485.

Talbot-Stern J, Richardson H, Tomlanovich MC, Obeid F, Nowak RM. 1986. Catheter aspiration for simple pneumothorax. Journal of Emergency Medicine 4(6):437–442.

Thorpe KE. 1990. The current hospital crisis in New York City and policy options for resolving it. New York State Journal of Medicine 90(5):247–252.

Vallee P, Sullivan M, Richardson H, Bivins B, Tomlanovich M. 1988. Sequential treatment of a simple pneumothorax. Annals of Emergency Medicine 17(9):936–942.

Viccellio P. 2001. Emergency department overcrowding: An action plan. Academic Emergency Medicine 8(2):185–187.

Wears RL, Perry SJ. 2002. Human factors and ergonomics in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 40(2):206–212.

Weissert W, Chernew M, Hirth R. 2003. Titrating versus targeting home care services to frail elderly clients: An application of agency theory and cost–benefit analysis to home care policy. Journal of Aging & Health 15(1):99–123.

Wilson JW, Oyen LJ, Ou NN, McMahon MM, Thompson RL, Manahan JM, Graner KK, Lovely JK, Estes LL. 2005. Hospital rules-based system: The next generation of medical informatics for patient safety. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 62:499–504.

Wilson MJ, Nguyen K. 2004. Bursting at the Seams: Improving Patient Flow to Help America’s Emergency Departments. Washington, DC: The George Washington University Medical Center.

Zwiche DL, Donohue JF, Wagner EH. 1982. Use of the emergency department observation unit in the treatment of acute asthma. Annals of Emergency Medicine 11:77–83.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement