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and infants born preterm or with low birth weights and their sequelae include the following:

  • Administration for Children and Families

  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities

    • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

  • National Center for Health Statistics

  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

  • Food and Drug Administration

  • Health Resources and Services Administration

    • Bureau of Primary Health Care

    • Maternal and Child Health Bureau

  • Indian Health Service

  • National Institutes of Health

    • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    • National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities

    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease

    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    • National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

    • National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

    • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

    • National Institute on Drug Abuse

    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

    • National Institute of Mental Health

    • National Institute of Nursing Research

  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration


Many ethical issues involved in reproduction research are being discussed and debated at this time, and some may be obstacles to this research. One issue involves whether there is a benefit to the mother and her fetus of inclusion in reproduction research and whether those who are enrolled in research are better off than those who are not. Another challenge involves the documented prevalence of off-label medication use and the professional obligation to study off-label medication use. For neonates, there has been a

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