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and its consequences from the general category is not possible with the information currently available from NIH.

Between FYs 2000 and 2004, funding in the category prenatal birthpreterm low birth weight increased from $306.5 million to $393 million in grants, contracts, and intramural research. Approximately 80 percent ($311.7 million) of these dollars came from the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, NICHD, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. PPB’s share of the NICHD contribution was about $70 million. The remainder of the NICHD funds is primarily allocated to research conducted in components of NICHD’s intramural research programs (Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research).

The PPB portfolio of grants relevant to preterm birth is divided between two areas. One area is parturition, in which basic research on the events leading to labor and delivery, which is fundamental to understanding preterm birth, is conducted. The other area is preterm birth, in which research directly related to preterm birth is conducted. In addition, two PPB networks are substantially involved in research on premature birth and its sequelae: the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit (MFMU) Network and the Neonatal Research Network (NRN). Both of these networks conduct clinical trials, as well as observational and mechanistic studies. The budget for MFMU in FY 2004 was about $10 million per year, approximately 75 percent of which goes to research on premature birth. The NRN FY 2004 research budget was approximately $8.5 million, with 75 percent going to research on infants born preterm ($6.4 million).

In FY 2004, PPB supported 264 grants, which included new and ongoing grants; 41 (15.6 percent of the total PPB funding) were related to research on parturition or spontaneous premature birth. Twenty of these grants (7.6 percent of the total) were for research on parturition, and 21 of these grants (8 percent of the total) were for research on premature birth. PPB also supported 30 network grants (11.4 percent of the total dollars) that dealt with research on premature birth or premature infants. These were all U10 grants, which are cooperative programs between sponsoring institutions and participating principal investigators. The preterm birth– related grants can also be divided into two categories: nonnetwork preterm birth grants (a total of $8.4 million) and grants into the MFMU for preterm birth research (a total of $7.5 million). About $11 million, representing about 10.3 percent of the total for research on infants born preterm, was expended. Nonnetwork grants for research on infants born preterm totaled $4.6 million, and funds going to NRN for research on infants born preterm were $6.4 million.

The portfolio of research on parturition was allocated into three general research areas: the uterus, which involves research on contractility and relaxation; fetal membranes, which involves research on fetal mem-



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