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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention F Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES Richard E. Behrman (Chair) is the executive of the Federation of Pediatric Organizations (FOPO) and chair of FOPO’s Pediatric Education Steering Committee. Until July 1, 2002, he held the position of Senior Vice President for Medical Affairs at the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health and Senior Advisor for Health Affairs at the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Dr. Behrman is also clinical professor of pediatrics at Stanford University; the University of California, San Francisco; and George Washington University, Washington, D.C. He recently served as chair of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Clinical Research Involving Children. Dr. Behrman’s areas of special interest include perinatal medicine, intensive and emergency care of children, the provision and organization of children’s health and social services, and related issues of public policy and ethics. Dr. Behrman has published extensively in critically reviewed scientific journals and is editor-in-chief of the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics and the journal The Future of Children. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Eli Y. Adashi is currently dean of medicine and biological sciences at Brown University. Dr. Adashi has until recently served as chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center. Dr. Adashi has authored or coauthored more than 250 peer-reviewed publications and more than 120 book chapters or reviews, as well as coedited or edited 13 books focusing on intraovarian regulation, repro-
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention ductive medicine, and novel gene discovery. A member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, a member of the Association of American Physicians, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. Adashi has been the recipient of several academic honors and awards. A past recipient of a Research Career Development Award from the National Institute of Child Health and Development, Dr. Adashi has been continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health since 1985, most recently in the area of ovarian genomics and gene-targeting technology. Dr. Adashi is former president of the Society for Reproductive Endocrinologists, the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, and the American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society. Dr. Adashi is a founding member, treasurer, and most recently, chair, on the advisory committee of the Geneva, Switzerland-based Bertarelli Foundation, which is dedicated to promoting the welfare of infertile couples and to addressing the “epidemic” of infertility therapy-associated high-order multiple gestations. Marilee C. Allen is a professor of pediatrics and associate director of neonatalology at The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. She is board certified in both neonatology and neurodevelopmental disabilities. She is an active clinician in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Johns Hopkins and is codirector of the NICU Developmental Clinic at the Kennedy Krieger Institute. Dr. Allen is an international expert on neonatal intensive care follow-up, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of high-risk infants, and early intervention strategies. She has authored or coauthored nearly 50 scientific papers. She has served on the Neonatal-Perinatal Sub-Board of the American Board of Pediatrics. Dr. Allen is also a member of the Society for Pediatric Research, the American Pediatric Society, the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Rita Loch Caruso, is a professor of environmental health sciences at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. Dr. Caruso received a Ph.D. in toxicology from the University of Cincinnati in 1984. She was assistant professor of pediatrics and human development at Michigan State University before joining the Toxicology Program at the University of Michigan. She has served on several National Institutes of Health study sections and is a member of the City of Ann Arbor Environmental Commission. She has been elected to university, regional, and national offices by her professional peers. Her research focus is female reproductive toxicology. Continuously funded by competitive external grants since 1984, her research emphasizes the mechanisms of toxicity related to pregnancy at the molecular, biochemical, and cellular levels and the integration of this
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention knowledge at the tissue and whole-animal levels. She has a particular emphasis on environmentally persistent chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, lindane, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Major projects involve the development of models for reproductive toxicity study, the mechanisms of disruption of uterine muscle gap junctions, toxicantinduced alteration of myometrial intracellular signaling (phosphorylation, calcium, phospholipids), and endocrine-mediated modulation of uterine contractions. She is a participating faculty member in the Environmental Toxicology, Reproductive Sciences, Pharmacological Sciences, and Cellular and Molecular Basis of Systems and Integrative Biology graduate and post-doctoral training programs. Jennifer Culhane is an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Drexel University College of Medicine and of biostatistics and epidemiology at the Drexel University School of Public Health. Dr. Culhane’s work focuses on the social determinants of adverse reproductive outcomes and the contribution that these social exposures play in racial and ethnic differences in the rates of preterm birth and low birth weight. In addition, Dr. Culhane explores the physiological mechanisms that underpin these associations. Her current funded research explores the efficacy of interpregnancy interventions on the reduction of repeat preterm birth. Specifically, non-pregnant women with a recent history of early preterm birth are assessed for a wide range of risk factors, including urogenital tract and periodontal infections, depression, body mass index, housing instability, smoking, and low levels of literacy. After randomization, women in the intervention group are provided treatment for all identified risk factors. Both the timing of the intervention (prepregnancy) and the simultaneous treatment of numerous risk factors are novel aspects of this work. Other studies employ multilevel modeling techniques to examine the association between various socioenvironmental influences—including measures of area-level poverty, crime, homelessness, housing abandonment, and sexually transmitted diseases—on the risk of preterm birth after adjustment for individual characteristics and behaviors. Christine Dunkel Schetter is a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and is director of the Health Psychology Program there. She has conducted research on pregnancy and birth from an multidisciplinary perspective since 1983, including several prospective studies of ethnically diverse and low income populations in California. Her research has focused broadly on the role of stress in preterm delivery, especially identifying the components of stress and emotion that predict preterm birth, the biological and behavioral pathways involved, ethnic disparities and cultural factors in pregnancy, and the roles of other psychoso-
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention cial factors such as social support and resilience resources in birth outcomes. She has collaborated with Dr. Calvin Hobel, Dr. Curt Sandman, Dr. Susan Scrimshaw, Dr. Ruth Zambrana, and others in this research. In 2004 she received the Distinguished Senior Research Award in Health Psychology (Division 38) from the American Psychological Association. She has served in many editorial and professional capacities pertaining to psychology and health. She is part of a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development–funded network project on community and child health using a community partnership model and investigating, among other issues, the role of stress and allostatic load in preterm birth. Michael G. Gravett is professor and vice-chairman of Obstetrics & Gynecology and director of Maternal-Fetal Medicine at the University of Washington School of Medicine. Dr. Gravett is active in obstetrical research related to prematurity. He has authored numerous scientific papers and chapters and is internationally recognized for his research on infectious causes and consequences of preterm birth. His work has been cited by other investigators nearly 1,000 times and he has received many national and international awards. He is active in several national and international societies, including the Infectious Disease Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. He is listed in The Best Doctors in America. Jay D. Iams holds the Frederick P. Zuspan Endowed Chair at Ohio State University in Columbus where he is professor and vice chair of the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology. He has conducted clinical research in prematurity since 1982, including trials of risk scoring and patient education, outpatient uterine contraction monitoring, and antibiotics to prevent preterm birth. Dr. Iams has been the principal investigator at Ohio State in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal Fetal Medicine Network since 1992, with publications on prematurity and cervical sonography, fetal fibronectin, uterine contraction frequency, antibiotics, and supplemental progesterone. He is an associate editor of The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and was president of the Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine in 2002–2003. He is a member of the American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society and the March of Dimes National Strategic Advisory Committee on Prematurity and sits on the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology’s Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine. Michael C. Lu is an assistant professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine. He holds a joint faculty appointment in the Department of Community Health Sci-
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention ences at the UCLA School of Public Health. Dr. Lu’s research examines racial-ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, with a focus on preterm birth. He is a co-principal investigator on a National Institutes of Health grant to plan and conduct a multisite, academic-community partnership study on child health disparities. He is also a co-principal investigator for the Los Angeles Best Babies Collaborative, a countywide collaborative funded by Proposition 10 to develop a plan for improving birth outcomes in Los Angeles. He is currently working with the California Maternal Child Health (MCH) Branch on developing a framework for quality monitoring and improvement of maternal health care in California. He is the associate director of the Maternal Child Health Bureau–funded leadership training program at the UCLA School of Public Health (through the Center for Healthier Children, Families, and Communities). He recently received the 2003 National MCH Epidemiology Young Professional Achievement Award, and the 2004 American Public Health Association MCH Section Young Professional Award. Marie McCormick is the Sumner & Esther Feldberg Professor of Maternal & Child Health in the Department of Society, Human Development, and Health at the Harvard School of Public Health and a professor of pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School. In 1987, she joined the faculty of the Department of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School in the Joint Program in Neonatology as the director of its Infant Follow-up Program and chief of the section of neonatal epidemiology and health policy. In 1991, she became professor and chair of the Department of Maternal and Child Health at the Harvard School of Public Health and a professor of pediatrics. Her research has focused on the effectiveness of perinatal and neonatal health services on the health of women and children, with a particular concern in the outcomes of very premature infants. Recent awards include election to the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars (1995), the Ambulatory Pediatric Association Research Award (1996), and election to membership to the Institute of Medicine. She has served on several advisory and study panels at the Institute of Medicine, for which she has been recognized as a National Associate of the National Academies in recognition for exceptional pro bono service. She has just completed a 3-year term as the chair of the Institute’s Committee on Immunization Safety, for which she was awarded the David Rall Medal at the annual meeting. Laura E. Riley is the medical director of labor and delivery at Massachusetts General Hospital, with a focus on high-risk pregnancy and an emphasis on infectious disease complications of obstetrics. She has provided clinical service for more than 10 years, working initially at Boston City Hospital
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention with indigent, high-risk pregnant women and with an emphasis on HIV disease in pregnancy. Dr. Riley has participated in multiple research initiatives, including the Women and Infants Transmission Study, which is a study of the natural history of HIV in pregnancy. Her current National Institutes of Health–sponsored research project investigates the causes of epidural-related fever in women randomized to receive an epidural for labor analgesia compared with that in women using a doula for labor support. Nationally, she continues to be interested in projects related to infectious disease complications of pregnancy, serving as a consultant to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on perinatal HIV testing and the recent guidelines on the prevention of group B streptococcus infection. She is in year 3 as the chair of the Obstetric Practice Committee at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, a committee that drafts guidelines for obstetric care. Jeannette A. Rogowski is a university professor in the Department of Health Systems and Policy at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Public Health. She is the director of the Center for Health Economics and Health Policy. Dr. Rogowski is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. She is an internationally recognized authority in the economics of preterm birth. Dr. Rogowski has written extensively on the cost and quality of neonatal intensive care. Her research has examined the costs of care for high-risk infants and the economic implications of collaborative quality improvement efforts. Related research has focused on the measurement of the quality of neonatal intensive care and on studying the determinants of high-quality care. Saroj Saigal is a neonatologist and professor of pediatrics at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. She is also a senior career scientist of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Dr. Saigal has been involved in outcome studies for the last 25 years. She and her collaborators have followed a population-based cohort of extremely low birth weight survivors (those with birth weights of <1,000 grams) from infancy to adulthood. The outcomes on a broad range of measures for this cohort in comparison with that of their normal birth weight peers have been reported in several waves at age 3, 5, and 8 years and adolescence. In the most recent investigative period (funded jointly by CIHR and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), the sociological (educational attainment, social and emotional functional limitations, and quality of life) and health (chronic illness, growth trajectories, physical activity, body composition, and economic burden of health care) outcomes were examined at young adulthood (age 24 years). Dr. Saigal is involved in several academic
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention and policy meetings on issues related to prematurity. She was awarded the Distinguished Neonatologist Award (2005) by the Canadian Pediatric Society for her contributions to the field. David Savitz is a professor in the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine of the Mount Siani School of Medicine, New York, N.Y. Dr. Savitz’s primary research activities and interests are in reproductive, environmental, and cancer epidemiology. He is developing and applying epidemiological methods in reproductive studies of pregnancy outcomes, specifically the roles of social factors, infection, nutrition, tobacco, illicit drug use, and stress in birth weight and preterm birth. His other research addresses the causes of pregnancy loss, child development, and a range of environmental and occupational exposures. He has served as editor of the American Journal of Epidemiology and as a member of the Epidemiology and Disease Control—1 Study Section of the National Institutes of Health and is currently an editor for the journal Epidemiology. He was president of the Society for Epidemiologic Research, was North American Regional Councilor for the International Epidemiological Association, and is president of the Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research. Hyagriv Simhan serves as medical director of the Center for Prematurity at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Simhan engages in both clinical and basic research exploring the role of infection and inflammation in early preterm birth. He is currently involved in single-center and multicenter international clinical cohort studies that explore the interactive contribution of genetics and the environment to the risk of preterm birth. He is also actively investigating anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents among women with preterm premature rupture of membranes for reduction of neonatal morbidity. His laboratory focus is on the response of uterine decidual cells to infectious and inflammatory stimuli and the ability of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobials to attenuate that response. Norman J. Waitzman is an associate professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Utah. He is a health economist with research concentrations in the areas of the societal burden of illness and the socioeconomic determinants of health. In the former area, he was the primary author of the most comprehensive study to date on the societal cost of birth defects. He has authored or coauthored several articles evaluating screening programs and other public health interventions, including the proposed U.S. Food and Drug Administration rule to supplement grains with folate in the late 1990s to prevent birth defects. Part of this research has also been devoted to the methodological problems encountered in estimates of the societal burden of illness and in the evaluation of interventions to reduce that
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention burden. In his area of expertise on the socioeconomic determinants of health, Dr. Waitzman has written several articles on the effects of socioeconomic characteristics of areas, independent of individual sociodemographic characteristics, on individual health and mortality. Xiaobin Wang is an attending pediatrician, the Mary Ann and J. Milburn Smith Research Professor, and director of the Mary Ann and J. Milburn Smith Child Health Research Program at the Children’s Memorial Medical Center and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. In the past 10 years, Dr. Wang’s research has focused on the molecular epidemiology of complex human diseases, in particular, adverse pregnancy outcomes. At present, Dr. Wang is the principal investigator of three National Institutes of Health–funded projects and one March of Dimes Birth Defect Foundation–funded molecular epidemiological project related to pregnancy outcomes. She leads a multidisciplinary research team that consists of a representative(s) from each of the areas of clinical medicine, epidemiology, molecular biology, population genetics, biostatistics/ bioinformatics, and environmental health sciences. The current research focus of her team is investigation of the environmental and genetic factors and gene-environment interactions in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the integration of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory methods to better understand the pathogenic pathways and biological mechanisms of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Dr. Wang has served as scientific grant reviewer for National Institutes of Health Study Sections and a scientific journal article reviewer for 18 scientific journals. IOM STAFF BIOGRAPHIES Andrew Pope is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy in the Institute of Medicine (IOM). With a Ph.D. in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests are in science policy, biomedical ethics, and the environmental and occupational influences on human health. During his tenure at the National Academies and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous studies on topics that range from injury control, disability prevention, and biological markers to the protection of human subjects of research, National Institutes of Health priority-setting processes, organ procurement and transplantation policy, and the role of science and technology in countering terrorism. Dr. Pope is the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences’ President’s Special Achievement Award and the Institute of Medicine’s Cecil Award. Adrienne Stith Butler is a senior program officer in the Board on Health Sciences Policy of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Previously, Dr. Stith
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Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention Butler served as study director for the IOM report, Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism: A Public Health Strategy, conducted within the Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health. She has also served as a staff officer for IOM reports, In the Nation’s Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health-Care Workforce and Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, conducted within the Board on Health Sciences Policy. Prior to working at IOM, Dr. Butler served as the James Marshall Public Policy Scholar, a fellowship cosponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and the American Psychological Association (APA). In this position, based at APA in Washington, D.C., she engaged in policy analysis and monitored legislative issues related to ethnic disparities in health care and health research, racial profiling, and mental health counseling provisions in the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Dr. Butler, a clinical psychologist, received a doctorate in 1997 from the University of Vermont. She completed postdoctoral fellowships in adolescent medicine and pediatric psychology at the University of Rochester Medical Center in Rochester, New York. Eileen J. Santa is a research associate with the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Prior to working at IOM, Ms. Santa worked with the American Psychological Association’s public policy office, analyzing policy, monitoring legislation, and advocating for increased access to language services for in hospital settings for patients whose dominant language is not English and increased services for women and ethnic minority veterans. Ms. Santa is also a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, where she conducted research on the postpartum mental health of Latinas. She has also coauthored a chapter on clinical issues in working with immigrant Latinas. Thelma L. Cox is a senior program assistant in the Board on Health Sciences Policy. During her years at the Institute of Medicine (IOM), she has also provided assistance to the Division of Health Care Services and the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Ms. Cox has worked on several IOM reports, including In the Nation’s Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health-Care Workforce; Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care; and Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies. She has received the National Research Council Recognition Award and two IOM Staff Achievement Awards.
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