data standardization role, 324

recommendations for, 12, 19, 20, 21, 192, 274, 275, 288, 310311

Alerts and alert systems

current technology, 287

false alerts and overrides, 20, 251252, 293294

intelligent prompting, 295297

scope of, 287

severity ranking, 293, 294

standardization, 288, 293295

See also Computerized drug event monitors;

Computerized provider order entry

Allergic reactions

clinical decision support to prevent, 246

prescribing errors, 71

preventable ADEs in hospitals, 119

Ambulatory care

costs of medication errors in, 56, 131, 132

electronic prescribing in, 14, 253

incidence of medication errors, 108, 112114, 124, 314, 384392, 396397

information resources in, 206

medical record keeping in, 387388

medication administration in, 429

medication error detection in, 244

medication therapy management in, 429430

opportunities for patient consultation, 173174

overutilization of medications in, 128

patient monitoring in, 323, 387

pediatric, 396397

preventable ADEs in, 5, 124

prevention research, 319320

research needs, 21, 314, 323

strategies for reducing errors in, 428430

underutilization of medications in, 127128

American Academy of Pediatrics, 29, 434

American Hospital Association, 160

American Medical Association, 410

American Medical Informatics Association, 343344

American Nurses Association, 410

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 29, 429

American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, 410

Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation, 296

Anesthesiology, 296297, 301

Anti-anxiety drugs, 421422

Antibiotic medications, 71, 84, 125, 126, 128, 373, 375

Anticoagulant therapy, 8889, 125, 249, 270, 313314, 382

Aspirin, 31, 270

Associated in Process Improvement, 157

Atrial fibrillation, 125, 127, 382

Automated dispensing systems

effectiveness, 251, 418

implementation, 334

linkages among automated and computerized systems, 252, 287

overrides of warnings, 252

purpose, 30, 7778

B

Bacterial infection prophylaxis, 125, 126.

See also Antibiotic medications

Bar coding, 413

alert systems, 287, 293294

error prevention efficacy, 6, 413

Food and Drug Administration rules, 297298

future prospects, 298299

linkages among automated and computerized systems, 252, 287

in nursing home medication use, 252253

purpose, 14, 30, 81, 250251

regulatory requirements, 280

research needs, 318, 319

standardization, 288, 291, 297299

use interface, 300301

Best Pharmaceuticals Act for Children, 268

Biologic Licensing Application, 59

Biologic products, 35

Blood and blood products, 35

Brand name drugs, 277, 278

Bridges to Excellence, 331

Bronchitis, 128

C

Cancer treatment, 164

Caregivers

error risk, 116, 186

incidence of pediatric medication errors, 314315



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