right to refuse treatment for dependents, 191

training and support for, 186

Case management, pharmaceutical, 432433

Causes of medication errors and adverse events

areas of evaluation for improving care, 33

in care transitions, 255

communication-related, 1718, 182183, 234, 274, 275

in computerized order entry, 74

in drug administration process, 8183

overutilization, 125, 128129, 274275, 384

in pharmaceutical industry, 266267

in pharmacy practice, 75, 76, 77, 7879

in prescribing process, 7174

research needs, 2, 317

risk/benefit information, 17

scope of, 37, 43, 51, 70

systemic context, 45, 184187

transcription of prescription, 7576, 378, 394

underutilization, 125, 126128, 234235, 382384

user interface-related, 299301

See also Dosage errors;

Nonadherence

Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 434

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

adverse event reporting system, 9394

National Center for Health Marketing, 206207

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

comparative performance reports, 331

drug formularies, 66

electronic prescribing rules, 336

information dissemination role, 207

recommendations for, 12, 21, 22, 192193, 310311, 312, 329, 333334

role of, 33

Certification Commission on Health Information Technology, 254255

Chart review, 241242

Chemical name, 275

Chemotherapy error incidence, 113

Chronic Care Model, 157158

Chronic coronary disease, 125

Claims data, 341

Clear Rx™, 198

Clinical decision-support systems, 26, 30, 85, 122

current state, 232

effectiveness, 6, 414417

for electronic prescribing, 247248

future prospects, 232

implementation, 253255

intelligent prompting, 295297

overrides of warnings, 251252, 293

rationale, 232

recommendations for, 16, 26, 228

standardization, 335

user interface, 300

See also Alerts and alert systems

Clinical trials

considerations in prescribing, 71

disclosure of results, 5758, 271274

informed consent rules, 159

new drug development process, 5556

registration site, 271, 272

regulatory oversight, 63

shortcomings of current health system, 17, 5657, 267271

Clinical unit, 222228

ClinicalTrials.gov, 271272

Cochrane Collaboration, 13

Cognitive processing

drug labeling and, 19, 274

medication information leaflet design considerations, 195196, 274

patient with impairment, 185

research needs, 318

technology interface design, 20, 288, 299302

Colds, 128

Comorbodity

adverse event risk, 86

research needs, 17, 269

Complementary and alternative medications

consumer health attitudes and beliefs, 189190

definition, 35

drug interactions, 116

error prevention strategies, 435438

information access for consumers and providers, 182

medication error rate, 108, 116, 316

patient self-prescribing, 7475

research needs, 21, 316

utilization, 31, 32, 189



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