development of the life science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program. He is past president of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. He has been coeditor of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching and associate editor of Cognition and Instruction and currently serves on the editorial board of the American Educational Research Journal. He recently served as design team member for the NRC’s Committee on Test Design for K-12 Science Achievement. He has a Ph.D. in science education from the University of Texas at Austin.


Thomas B. Corcoran codirects the Consortium for Policy Research in Education at the University of Pennsylvania, where he has led evaluations of the Merck Institute for Science Education, the Annenberg Challenge in Philadelphia, team-based schooling in Cincinnati, and the America’s Choice Comprehensive School Design. Previously, he served as the policy advisor for education for New Jersey Governor Jim Florio, director of school improvement for research for better schools, and director of evaluation and chief-of-staff of the New Jersey Department of Education. He is a member of the MacArthur Foundation’s Network on Teaching and Learning and a member of the Research Committee of the International Baccalaureate Organization. His major research interests are the use of evidence to inform policy and practice in public education, policies for expanding access to challenging curriculum, the development and use of clinical expertise about teaching, the efficacy of different approaches to professional development, and the impact of changes in work environments on the productivity of teachers and students. He has an M.Ed. from the University of London (1963).


Kevin J. Crowley is associate professor of education and cognitive psychology at the University of Pittsburgh’s Learning Research and Development Center, where he also directs the Center for Learning in Out-of-School Settings. His research interests focus on the development of children’s scientific thinking in informal, formal, and everyday settings, focusing on how they develop knowledge and skill in such contexts as museums and on the web and how to best coordinate their experiences in science. He has been a visiting fellow at the Department of Psychology and Education at Nagoya University in Japan. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from Carnegie Mellon University (1994).


Frank C. Keil is professor of psychology and linguistics at Yale University and master of Morse College. Previously, he held the William R. Kenan, Jr., endowed chair in psychology at Cornell University. His research focuses on how people come to make sense of the world around them. Much of this research involves asking how intuitive explanations and understandings emerge in development and how they are related to notions of cause, mecha-



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