nism, and agency. His work also explores how children and adults learn to navigate the division of cognitive labor that integrates both formal and informal scientific understanding. He received the National Institutes of Health multiyear MERIT award in 2003, which provides long-term support for outstanding investigators. He has been a Guggenheim fellow and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He has a Ph.D. in psychology, with an emphasis in developmental psychology, from the University of Pennsylvania (1977).


David Klahr is professor in the Department of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University, where he served as department head from 1983 to 1993 and is currently director of the interdisciplinary Training Grant in Educational Research. His early work addressed cognitive processes in such diverse areas as multidimensional scaling, voting behavior, college admissions, consumer choice, peer review, and problem solving. He pioneered the application of information-processing analysis to questions of cognitive development, formulating the first computational models to account for children’s thinking processes. His current research focuses on cognitive development, scientific reasoning, and cognitively based instructional interventions in early science education. He served on the NRC Committee on Research in Education and the committee responsible for the report Knowing What Students Know. He is currently on the governing board of the Cognitive Development Society and an associate editor for Developmental Psychology. He has a Ph.D. in organizations and social behavior from Carnegie Mellon University (1968).


Okhee Lee is a professor in the School of Education at the University of Miami, Florida. Her research areas of interest include science education, language and culture, and teacher education. One of her current research projects implements instructional interventions to promote science learning and English language and literacy development for elementary school students from diverse languages and cultures. She received a 1993-1995 National Academy of Education Spencer Post-doctoral Fellowship and was a 1996-1997 fellow at the National Institute for Science Education, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison. She serves on editorial boards for major education research journals as well as advisory boards for science education reform projects. Lee currently serves as a member of the NRC’s Board on Science Education. Lee has a Ph.D. in educational psychology from Michigan State University (1989).


Daniel M. Levin is a science teacher at Montgomery Blair High School, an ethnically diverse school in the Washington, DC, area. He taught middle school science for a number of years and is now a high school biology and chemistry teacher. He is currently on leave from the school and is acting as



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