B

Bay Area School Reform Collaborative (BASRC), 308309

BEAR. See Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center

Beliefs, 173174.

See also Competencies of K-8 students

about causal mechanism and plausibility, 143146

about oneself and about science, ability to “do science,” 196197

young children’s understanding of, 7879

Belvedere, 274

Benchmarking assessment systems, for coherent instruction, 319322, 344

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 16, 35, 44, 216

Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center (BEAR), 320

BGuILE, 269

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 13

Biology, children’s early conceptual understanding of naïve, 6669

Black students, 315

Bohr, Niels, 244

Book of nature, 189

Bootstrapping, 154

Border crossing, 201

“Boundary-filling” conception of measurement, 155

Bracketing, 138

“Bridging analogies” strategy, 114

Burning, concepts of, 101

C

California, 307309

Categorization, 74

Causal nexus, 228

Causation

beliefs about the mechanisms of, 59, 143146, 148

correlation versus, 266

hypotheses about, 140142, 144

multiple, 75

and their effects, 63

Ceiling effects, 298

Cells, misconceptions about, 100

Centralized education policy, Americans’ distaste for, 16

Certainty, 171

Cheche Konnen Center, 194, 266, 311312

ChemStudy, 13

Children’s abilities, 130

Children’s ideas about the mind, 169170

tasks used to study, 65

Children’s learning of science, 51210

foundations for science learning in young children, 5392

generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations, 129167

knowledge and understanding of the natural world, 93128

participation in scientific practices and discourse, 186210

understanding how scientific knowledge is constructed, 168185

Children’s reasoning, 3, 222

China, 96

Classroom-based assessment practices, 247

and student learning outcomes, 285

Classroom discourse, 268, 299

Classrooms.

See also Instruction in K-8 science classrooms

as scientific communities, 40

that promote productive participation, 202203

Cognition

epistemic, 173, 175, 178

“situated,” 29

Cognitive inference, 75, 103

Cognitive processes, 130.

See also Noncognitive factors

basic research in, 42, 52

interaction with social factors, 29

in preschool children, 53

Cognitive science, 63

of science itself, 66

“Cognitively guided instruction,” 312

Coherent instructional systems, 317322, 345

benchmarking assessment systems, 319322

curriculum materials, 318319

Collaborations, 188, 263, 319

Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade, 2123

charge to, 21

Commonsense properties of materials, 229

Communities.

See also Scientific communities

“communities of practice,” 308

“community of learners” approach, 275



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