Competencies of K-8 students, 19, 172

beliefs about, gender factors in, 196197

Complexity, of science learning, 212

“Composite culture,” 276

Comprehension, reading, 274275

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, 282

Computer-based investigations, 279

Computer simulations, 140

Computer visualization tools, 277

Concept-oriented reading instruction (CORI), 199, 259

Conceptual change, 106118

versus developmental change, 117118

differentiating, 108

forms of, 107110

mechanisms of, 110117

nature of, 106118

restructuring a network of concepts, 108109

Conceptual structures, 119120

acquiring, 37

coalescing, 109

constructing new representations, 113116

elaborating on existing, 107108

scaffolding models, 276278

understanding, 215

Conceptual understanding during the K-8 years, 19, 3031, 94106

an expanding theory of psychology, 103104

expanding understandings of matter and its transformation, 101103

extending and changing understandings of naïve physics, 9698

extending and revising naïve biology, 98101

literature on, 51

summary of knowledge growth across the domains, 105106

toward a mature cosmology, 104105

Concrete experiences, 105

with the natural world, 260

progressions involving, 54

Confounding, 134, 142

Congress, 15

Consensus view, 170

Conservation of matter, 71

Construal principles, 106

Constructivist epistemologies, 177

Content.

See also Strands of scientific proficiency

dual focus on, 304

including in standards, 219

Contingency-based movement, 64, 75

Continuum, of formative assessment, 280

Contrastive tests, 144

Control-of-variables strategy, 150151, 190

Convocation on Science and Mathematics, 15

Core ideas

emergent, 119, 223

learning progressions needed for, 226

research and development needed in identifying, 178179, 352

CORI. See Concept-oriented reading instruction

Correlation, versus causation, 266

Cosmology, toward a mature, 104105

Counterintuitive findings, 146

Covariation evidence

complex patterns of, 61

evaluating, 138141, 145

identifying patterns of, 137

versus noncovariation, 139, 143

reasoning about, 75

Credentialing requirements, 300

Critical areas for research and development, 351355

curriculum and instruction, 352353

diversity and equity, 354355

evaluation and scale-up, 353354

identifying core ideas and developing learning progressions, 352

learning across the four strands, 351352

professional development and teacher learning, 353

Cues, 64, 75

Cultural institutions, 200

Cultural values and norms, 69, 101, 190194, 199200, 340

Current approaches in policy and practice, 20, 182, 214219, 253255, 267

curriculum and instruction in K-8 science classrooms, 217219

curriculum standards, 216217

progressing beyond, 231245

science process skills, 215216

Current textbooks, 244

Current theories of science, 52, 107

limitations of, 27



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