Toth, E.E., Klahr, D., and Chen, Z. (2000). Bridging research and practice: A cognitively-based classroom intervention for teaching experimentation skills to elementary school children. Cognition and Instruction, 18(4), 423-459.

Toulmin, S.E. (1972). Human understanding, vol. I. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Tschirgi, J.E. (1980). Sensible reasoning: A hypothesis about hypotheses. Child Development, 51, 1-10.

Vellom, R.P., and Anderson, C.W. (1999). Reasoning about data in middle school science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, 179-199.

Vosniadou, S., and Brewer, W.F. (1992). Mental models of the earth: A study of conceptual change in childhood. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 535-585.

Vosniadou, S., and Brewer, W.F. (1994). Mental models of the day/night cycle. Cognitive Science, 18, 123-183.

Wason, P.C. (1960). On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12(4), 129-140.

Wason, P.C. (1968). Reasoning about a rule. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20, 273-281.

White, B. (1993). ThinkerTools: Causal models, conceptual change, and science education. Cognition and Instruction, 10(1), 1-100.

Wiser, M., and Amin, T. (2001). Is heat hot? Inducing conceptual change by integrating everyday and scientific perspective on thermal phenomena. Learning and Instruction, 11, 331-355.

Wollman, W. (1997a). Controlling variables: Assessing levels of understanding. Science Education, 61(3), 371-383.

Wollman, W. (1997b). Controlling variables: A neo-Piagetian developmental sequence. Science Education, 61(3), 385-391.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement