FUNDING BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Contributions of the Markey Trust

Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences

Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Policy and Global Affairs Division

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust FUNDING BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS Contributions of the Markey Trust Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs Division NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant No. 98-1 between the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10187-5 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, <http://www.nap.edu>. Suggested citation: National Research Council. 2006. Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust. Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences. Board on Higher Education and Workforce, Policy and Global Affairs Division. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust COMMITTEE FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE LUCILLE P. MARKEY CHARITABLE TRUST PROGRAMS IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Lee Sechrest, University of Arizona, Chair Enriqueta Bond, (IOM), Burroughs-Wellcome Fund William T. Butler (IOM), Baylor College of Medicine Elaine K. Gallin, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Mary-Lou Pardue (NAS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Georgine Pion, Vanderbilt University Lloyd H. Smith (IOM), University of California, San Francisco (Retired) Virginia V. Weldon (IOM), Monsanto Company (Retired) James Wyngaarden (IOM), Duke University (Retired) Staff George R. Reinhart, Senior Project Officer Elaine Lawson, Program Officer Patricia Ellen Santos, Senior Program Assistant Heather Begg, Program Assistant

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Chair, Cornell University Bert Barnow, Johns Hopkins University Donald L. Bitzer, North Carolina State University Carlos G. Gutierrez, California State University, Los Angeles Donald L. Johnson, Grain Processing Corporation (Retired) Claudia Mitchell-Kernan, University of California, Los Angeles Michael T. Nettles, Educational Testing Service Debra W. Stewart, The Council of Graduate Schools Tadataka Yamada, GlaxoSmithKline Staff Peter Henderson, Director Evelyn Simeon, Administrative Associate Elizabeth Scott, Administrative Assistant

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust Preface and Acknowledgments In response to a request by the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies, through the Board on Higher Education and Workforce (BHEW), is conducting an evaluation of the Markey Trust’s grant programs in the biomedical sciences. During an interval of 15 years, the Markey Trust spent more than $500 million on four programs in the basic biomedical sciences that support the education and research of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior faculty, and senior researchers. This study addresses two questions: (1) Were these funds well spent? and (2) What can others in the biomedical and philanthropic communities learn from the programs of the Markey Trust? To accomplish these goals, the committee overseeing the project Has examined the General Organizational Grants program, intended to catalyze new ways to train Ph.D. and M.D. students in translational research; Convened a conference of Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows in 2002; Is reviewing the Research Programs Grants, which provided funding to institutions to support the work of senior investigators; Conducted a workshop to investigate methods used to evaluate funding of biomedical science by philanthropic donors; and Will evaluate the program for Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows, which supported young biomedical investigators in their early careers.

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust This is the third of a series of reports that document the activities of the Markey Trust. This report examines the Research Programs Grants, the largest component of the Markey Trust’s funding activities. During the 12-year interval beginning in 1985 the Trust awarded more than $325 million to 92 research organizations. These awards were made to able investigators with a major commitment to the life sciences to assist in the establishment, reorganization, or expansion of significant biomedical research centers or programs. The Trust initially identified the target of Research Program Grants as institutions with a major commitment to the life sciences. The grants usually involved funding for the recruitment of new faculty, pre- and postdoctoral support, completion or renovation of laboratory space, purchase of new equipment, and additional technical assistance. NRC staff has obtained data and information from Markey archives and databases, solicited materials from grant recipients, and conducted site visits to a sample of institutions’ grant recipients. The study assesses the impact of these grants on the centers and programs they funded, focusing on program development, program sustainability, research productivity, faculty development, and the impact of the funded program on the host institution. Previously published reports that detail the activities of the Markey Trust are Bridging the Bed-Bench Gap: Contributions of the Markey Trust, which examines the General Organizational Grants program, and The Markey Scholars Conference Proceedings. The latter summarizes presentations and abstracts from the 2002 Markey Scholars Conference held as part of the National Academies evaluation. Both reports are available through the National Academies Press. Additional reports will assess the Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows programs and publish the proceedings of a workshop on evaluation practices in philanthropic and public organizations that support biomedical scientists. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Peter Bruns, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Barry Coller, Rockefeller University; Samuel Herman, Consultant; Hedvig Hricak, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Henry Riecken, University of Penn-

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust sylvania; Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Whitehead Institute; and Robert Woolard, Brown University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Edward Perrin, University of Washington and James Wyche, University of Oklahoma. Appointed by the National Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The production of this report was the result of work over a sustained period of time by the study Committee. George Reinhart, study director; Elaine Lawson, program officer; Patricia Ellen Santos, senior program assistant; and Heather Begg, program assistant ably assisted the committee in this study. Enriqueta Bond, Ph.D., who earlier served as chair of the committee, was instrumental in the early development of both the study and this report. Lee Sechrest Chair Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust Contents     Summary   1     Introduction   6     History of the Markey Trust   9     Grant Programs   14      Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows,   15      General Organizational Grants,   16      Miscellaneous Awards,   16      Research Program Grants,   18     Background of the Research Program Grants   19     Assessing the Markey Research Program Grants   27     Outcomes of the Research Program Grants   36     References   51     Appendixes     A   Overview and Description—Research Program Grants Awards   53 B   Site Visit Reports—Large Research Program Grant Awards   75 C   Site Visit Reports, Telephone Interviews, and Letter Reports—Small Research Program Grant Awards   87 D   Outcome Measures for Research Program Grant Awardees   117 E   Biographies of Committee Members   124

OCR for page R1
Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust This page intentionally left blank.