Elaine K. Gallin, Ph.D., is the Program Director for Medical Research at The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. Dr. Gallin’s research involves the characterization of ion transport mechanisms in macrophages, leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, and the effects of ionizing radiation of leukocyte function and vascular integrity. She received her B.S. from Cornell University, her M.S. from Hunter College, and her Ph.D. from City University, New York. She has held positions at the Uniformed Services University and Georgetown University Medical School, was a Congressional Fellow on the Public Policy Committee, and is a member of the Physiology Study Section at NIH.


Georgine Pion, Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor of Psychology and Human Development and Senior Fellow with the Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies at Vanderbilt University. She received her Ph.D. in social-environmental psychology from Claremont Graduate School in 1980 and did postdoctoral research training in the Division of Methodology and Evaluation Research at Northwestern University. She has served on committees involved in the evaluation of research and health professional training programs and gender differences in the career development of scientists for the National Research Council, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Mental Health. Currently, she is involved in directing an evaluation of the neuroscience peer review process at NIH, evaluating the outcomes of new instructional strategies in biomedical engineering education, and assessing the outcomes of postdoctoral research training programs sponsored by the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and other foundations. She is an Associate of the National Academy of Sciences


Mary-Lou Pardue, Ph.D., is the Boris Magasanik Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. As a geneticist and cell biologist, she has studied eukaryotic chromosomes with emphasis on sequences involved in the structure and function of chromosomes as organelles. She served as president of both the Genetics Society of America and the American Society for Cell Biology and was Chair of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Difference. She received a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1970.


Lloyd Hollingsworth Smith, M.D., is Professor Emeritus of Medicine and a former Associate Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. His areas of expertise include biochemistry, endocrinology and metabolism, internal medicine, and medical genetics. His interests and capabilities also include medical center administration,



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