BOX 6-3

The Department of Homeland Security’s 15 National Planning Scenarios

  1. Nuclear Detonation: 10-Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device

  2. Biological Attack: Aerosol Anthrax

  3. Biological Disease Outbreak: Pandemic Influenza

  4. Biological Attack: Plague

  5. Chemical Attack: Blister Agent

  6. Chemical Attack: Toxic Industrial Chemical

  7. Chemical Attack: Nerve Agent

  8. Chemical Attack: Chlorine Tank Explosion

  9. Natural Disaster: Major Earthquake

  10. Natural Disaster: Major Hurricane

  11. Radiological Attack: Radiological Dispersal Device

  12. Explosives Attack: Bombing Using Improvised Explosive Devices

  13. Biological Attack: Food Contamination

  14. Biological Attack: Foreign Animal Disease (Foot and Mouth Disease)

  15. Cyber Attack

SOURCE: Homeland Security Council, 2004.

prepared community today. Given the enormous deficiencies in preparation for disasters in communities throughout the United States, the committee maintains that DHS and other agencies should enhance the equipment, training, and surge capacity of local emergency and trauma care systems in order to prepare for both day-to-day spikes in demand and mass-casualty disaster events. Mass-casualty preparations should heavily emphasize the most likely disaster scenarios.

Recognizing EMS as an Equal Partner in Disaster Planning and Funding

EMS and trauma systems have to a large extent been overlooked in disaster preparedness planning at both the state and federal levels (NASEMSD, 2003). This is due in part to the fact that EMS is often regarded as a subset of fire response, though the medical role that would be undertaken by EMS personnel in the event of a major emergency is distinct from the role of fire suppression teams (Fire Engineering, 2004). Given the specific homeland security threats that confront the United States, most of which have a heavy medical component, the committee recommends that

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