dynamic load-responsive deployment, 65

emerging technologies for, 163164

equipment, 158159

fleet characteristics, 5556

hospital-based EMS, 58

information technologies for, 163, 164, 170

interfacility transport, 162163

legal requirements, 4849

licensing, 158, 159

light and siren use, 160, 220

Medicare reimbursement, 47

national capacity, 158

origins and development, 3233

performance measurement, 86

private EMS systems, 5859

problems of hospital emergency department crowding, 40

regional disparities, 2324

in rural areas, 65

utilization, 83

See also Prehospital care;

Transportation of patient

American Board of Emergency Medicine, 9, 144

American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), 35, 7879, 208

American College of Surgeons, 35, 7879, 85

Anthrax, 181

Automated external defibrillators (AEDs), 16, 140141, 218219

Automatic crash notification, 16, 27, 63, 149, 155157

Avian influenza, 178

B

Basic life support (BLS) transport

features, 158

fleet characteristics, 55

Medicare reimbursement, 47

training curriculum, 124

Battlefield Medical Information System Tactical (BMIST), 169

Biochemical weapons, 181182, 193194, 199200

Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program, 12, 100, 197

Blood substitute, 163

Bystander care, 6566, 140141

C

California

EMS system management, 35

model EMS and trauma system, 9495

San Francisco EMS system, 39

Capacity, EMS

air medical services, 161

ambulance services, 158

goals for system, 5

local disaster preparedness, 194196

national, 15

9-1-1 systems, 53, 63, 151

Cardiac arrest

incidence, 16

Public Access Defibrillation trial, 218219

Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES), 87, 217

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

citizen first responders, 6566, 140

origins of EMS system, 1, 32

prehospital care research, 219, 220

Categorization

of emergency providers, 8, 7980, 114115

of trauma care capabilities, 78, 114115

Causes of ED visits, 1617

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

EMS-related programs, 44

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 36, 44, 46, 99100, 217

research efforts, 208, 217

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

EMS reimbursement, 41

performance measurement activities, 88

recommendations for, 78, 114, 116

See also Medicaid;

Medicare

Centers for Public Health Preparedness, 181

Civil War, U.S., 32

Commission on Accreditation of Ambulance Services, 85

Commission on Accreditation of Medical Transport Systems, 85

Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System, 5, 2425



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