REFERENCES

References are listed below as topics that roughly correlate to the various chapters of the book.

OXYGEN THROUGH TIME (CHAPTERS 1 AND 2)

Baret P, Fouarge A, Bullens P, Lints F. 1994. Life-span of Drosophila melanogaster in highly oxygenated atmospheres. Mech. Ageing Dev. 76:25–31.

Beerling DJ, Berner RA. 2000. Impact of a Permo-Carboniferous high O2 event on the terrestrial carbon cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:12428–12432.

Beerling DJ, Woodward FI. 2001. Vegetation and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: Modelling the First 400 Million Years. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Beerling DJ, Woodward FI, Lomas MR, Wills MA, Quick WP, Valdes PJ. 1998. The influence of Carboniferous palaeoatmospheres on plant function: an experimental and modeling assessment. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 353:131–140.

Beerling DJ, Lake JA, Berner RA, Hickey LJ, Taylor DW, Royer DL. 2002. Carbon isotope evidence implying high O2/CO2 ratios in the Permo-Carboniferous atmosphere. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66:3757–3767.

Berner RA. 1987. Models for carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen: application to Paleozoic geologic history. Am. J. Sci. 287:177–190.

Berner RA. 1999. A new look at the long-term carbon cycle. GSA Today 9(11):1–6.

Berner RA. 2001. Modeling atmospheric O2 over Phanerozoic time. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65:685–694.

Berner RA. 2002. Examination of hypotheses for the Permo-Triassic boundary extinction by carbon cycle modeling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:4172–4177.

Berner RA. 2004. The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere REFERENCES References are listed below as topics that roughly correlate to the various chapters of the book. OXYGEN THROUGH TIME (CHAPTERS 1 AND 2) Baret P, Fouarge A, Bullens P, Lints F. 1994. Life-span of Drosophila melanogaster in highly oxygenated atmospheres. Mech. Ageing Dev. 76:25–31. Beerling DJ, Berner RA. 2000. Impact of a Permo-Carboniferous high O2 event on the terrestrial carbon cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:12428–12432. Beerling DJ, Woodward FI. 2001. Vegetation and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: Modelling the First 400 Million Years. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Beerling DJ, Woodward FI, Lomas MR, Wills MA, Quick WP, Valdes PJ. 1998. The influence of Carboniferous palaeoatmospheres on plant function: an experimental and modeling assessment. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 353:131–140. Beerling DJ, Lake JA, Berner RA, Hickey LJ, Taylor DW, Royer DL. 2002. Carbon isotope evidence implying high O2/CO2 ratios in the Permo-Carboniferous atmosphere. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66:3757–3767. Berner RA. 1987. Models for carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen: application to Paleozoic geologic history. Am. J. Sci. 287:177–190. Berner RA. 1999. A new look at the long-term carbon cycle. GSA Today 9(11):1–6. Berner RA. 2001. Modeling atmospheric O2 over Phanerozoic time. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65:685–694. Berner RA. 2002. Examination of hypotheses for the Permo-Triassic boundary extinction by carbon cycle modeling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:4172–4177. Berner RA. 2004. The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Berner RA. 2005. The carbon and sulfur cycles and atmospheric oxygen from middle Permian to middle Triassic. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69:3211–3217. Berner RA. In press. GEOCARBSULF: a combined model for Phanerozoic atmospheric O2 and CO2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. Berner RA, Canfield DE. 1989. A new model of atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time. Am. J. Sci. 289:333–361. Berner RA, Kothavala Z. 2001. GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. Am. J. Sci. 301:182–204. Berner RA, Maasch KA. 1996. Chemical weathering and controls on atmospheric O2 and CO2: fundamental principles were enunciated by J.J. Ebelmen in 1845. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60:1633–1637. Berner RA, Raiswell R. 1983. Burial of organic carbon and pyrite sulfur in sediments over Phanerozoic time: a new theory. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 47:855–862. Berner RA, Petsch ST, Lake JA, Beerling DJ, Popp BN, et al. 2000. Isotope fractionation and atmospheric oxygen: implications for Phanerozoic O2 evolution. Science 287:1630–1633. Bouverot P. 1985. Adaptation to Altitude—Hypoxia in Vertebrates. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Briggs DEG. 1985. Gigantism in Palaeozoic arthropods. Spec. Pap. Paleontol. 33:157. Broecker WS, Peacock S. 1999. Anecologic explanation for the Permo-Triassic carbon and sulfur isotope shifts. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 13:1167–1172. Carpenter SJ, Lohmann KC. 1997. Carbon isotope ratios of Phanerozoic marine cements: re-evaluating the global carbon and sulfur systems. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61:4831–4846. Carroll RL. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W. H. Freeman. Chaloner WG. 1989. Fossil charcoal as an indicator of paleoatmospheric oxygen level. J. Geol. Soc. London 146:171–174. Chapelle G, Peck LS. 1999. Polar gigantism dictated by oxygen availability. Nature 399:114–115. Clark JS, Cachier H, Goldammer JG, Stocks B, eds. 1997. Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change. New York: Springer-Verlag. Cloud P. 1976. Beginnings of biospheric evolution and their biogeochemical consequences. Paleobiology 2:351–387. Colman AS, Holland HD. 2000. The global diagenetic flux of phosphorus from marine sediments to the oceans: redox sensitivity and the control of atmospheric oxygen levels. Pp. 53-75 in Marine Authigenesis: From Microbial to Global, vol. 66, C Glenn, J Lucas, L Prevot-Lucas, eds. Tulsa, OK: SEPM Special Publication. Cope MJ, Chaloner WG. 1980. Fossil charcoals as evidence of past atmospheric composition. Nature 283:647–649. Cornette JL, Lieberman B, Goldstein R. 2002. Documenting a significant relationship between macroevolutionary origination rates and Phanerozoic CO2 levels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:7832-7835. Crowley TJ, Yip KJ, Baum SK. 1993. Milankovitch cycles and Carboniferous climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 20:1175–1178. Deeming J, Burgan R, Cohen JD. 1977. National Fire Danger Rating System—1978. USDA Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-39. USDA Forest Service, Ogden, UT.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Des Marais DJ, Strauss H, Summons RE, Hayes JM. 1992. Carbon isotope evidence for the stepwise oxidation of the Proterozoic environment. Nature 359:605–609. Dudley R. 1998. Atmospheric oxygen, giant Paleozoic insects and the evolution of aerial locomotor performance. J. Exp. Biol. 201:1043–1050. Dudley R. 2000. The Biomechanics of Insect Flight: Form, Function, Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Dudley R, Chai P. 1996. Animal flight mechanics in physically variable gas mixtures. J. Exp. Biol. 199:1881–1885. Ebelmen JJ. 1845. Sur les produits de la decomposition des especes minerales de la famile des silicates. Annu. Rev. Mines 12:627–654. Edmond JM, Measures C, McDuff RE, Chan LH, Collier R, et al. 1979. Ridge crest hydrothermal activity and the balances of the major and minor elements in the ocean: the Galapagos data. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 46:1–18. Ellington CP. 1991. Aerodynamics and the origin of insect flight. Adv. Insect Physiol. 23:171–210. Erwin DH. 1993. The Great Paleozoic Crisis: Life and Death in the Permian. New York: Columbia University Press. Falcon-Lang HJ. 2000. Fire ecology of the Carboniferous tropical zone. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 164:355–371. Falkowski P. 1997. Evolution of the nitrogen cycle and its influence on the biological sequestration of CO2 in the ocean. Nature 387:272–275. Farquhar GD, Wong SC. 1984. An empirical model of stomatal conductance. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 11:191–210. Farquhar GD, O’Leary MH, Berry JA. 1982. On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 9:121–137. Fisher DC. 1979. Evidence for subaerial activity of Euproops danae (Merostomata, Xiphosurida). Pp. 379–447 in Mazon Creek Fossils, MH Nitecki, ed. New York: Academic Press. Flower JW. 1964. On the origin of flight in insects. J. Insect Physiol. 10:81–88. Francois LM, Gerard JC. 1986. A numerical model of the evolution of ocean sulfate and sedimentary sulfur during the past 800 million years. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50:2289–2302. Frazier MR, Woods HA, Harrison JF. 2001. Interactive effects of rearing temperature and oxygen on the development of Drosophila melanogaster. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 74:641–650. Gaillardet J, Dupre B, Louvat P, Allegre C. 1999. Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers. Chem. Geol. 159: 596–611. Gale J, Rachmilevitch S, Reuveni J, Volokita M. 2001. The high oxygen atmosphere toward the end-Cretaceous: a possible contributing factor to the K/T boundary extinctions and the emergence of C4 species. J. Exp. Bot. 52:801–809. Gans C. 1970. Strategy and sequence in the evolution of the external gas exchangers of ectothermal vertebrates. Forma Functio. 3:61–104. Gans C, Dudley R, Aguilar NM, Graham JB. 1999. Late Paleozoic atmospheres and biotic evolution. Hist. Biol. 13:199–219.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Garrels RM, Lerman A. 1984. Coupling of the sedimentary sulfur and carbon cycles—an improved model. Am. J. Sci. 284:989–1007. Garrels RM, Perry EA. 1974. Cycling of carbon, sulfur and oxygen through geologic time. Pp. 303–316 in The Sea, vol. 5, E Goldberg, ed. New York: Wiley. Gilbert DL. 1996. Evolutionary aspects of atmospheric oxygen and organisms. Pp. 1059–1094 in Environmental Physiology, vol. 2, MJ Fregly, CM Blatteis, eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Glasspool I. 2000. A major fire event recorded in the mesofossils and petrology of the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam, Sydney Basin, Australia. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 164:373–396. Graham JB. 1990. Ecological, evolutionary, and physical factors influencing aquatic animal respiration. Am. Zool. 30:137–146. Graham JB, Dudley R, Aguilar N, Gans C. 1995. Implications of the late Palaeozoic oxygen pulse for physiology and evolution. Nature 375:117–120. Graham JB, Aguilar N, Dudley R, Gans C. 1997. The late Paleozoic atmosphere and the ecological and evolutionary physiology of tetrapods. Pp. 141–167 in Amniote Origins: Completing the Transition to Land, SS Sumida, KLM Martin, eds. New York: Academic Press. Greenberg S, Ar A. 1996. Effects of chronic hypoxia, normoxia and hyperoxia on larval development in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. J. Insect Physiol. 42:991–996. Greenlee KJ, Harrison JF. 1998. Acid-base and respiratory responses to hypoxia in the grasshopper Schistorcerca americana. J. Exp. Biol. 201:2843–2855. Hallam A. 1991. Why was there a delayed radiation after the end-Paleozoic extinctions? Hist. Biol. 5:257–262. Hansen KW, Wallmann K. 2003. Cretaceous and Cenozoic evolution of seawater composition, atmospheric O2 and CO2. Am. J. Sci. 303:94–148. Harrison JF, Lighton JRB. 1998. Oxygen-sensitive flight metabolism in the dragonfly Erythemis simplicicollis. J. Exp. Biol. 201:1739–1744. Hayes JM, Strauss H, Kaufman AJ. 1999. The abundance of 13C in marine organic matter and isotope fractionation in the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon during the past 800 Ma. Chem. Geol. 161:103–125. Holland HD. 1978. The Chemistry of the Atmosphere and Oceans. New York: Wiley Interscience. Holland HD. 1984. The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Hollander DJ, MacKenzie JA. 1991. CO2 control on the carbon-isotope fractionation during aqueous photosynthesis: a paleo-CO2 barometer. Geology 19:929–932. Holter P, Spangenberg A. 1997. Oxygen uptake in coprophilous beetles (Aphodius, Geotrupes, Sphaeridium) at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations. Physiol. Entomol. 22:339–343. Jin Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Shang QH, Cao CQ, Erwin D. 2000. Pattern of marine mass extinction near the Permian-Triassic boundary in south China. Science 289:432–436. Jones TP, Chaloner WG. 1991. Fossil charcoal, its recognition and palaeoatmospheric significance. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 97:39–50. Kadko D. 1996. Radioisotopic studies of submarine hydrothermal vents. Rev. Geophys. 34:349–366.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Kim S-T, O’Neil JR. 1997. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium oxygen isotope effects in synthetic carbonates. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61:3461–3475. Kingsolver JG, Koehl MAR. 1994. Selective factors in the evolution of insect wings. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 39:425–451. Kloek G, Ridgel G, Ralin D. 1976. Survivorship and life expectancy of Drosophila melanogaster populations in abnormal oxygen-normal pressure regimes. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 47:1174–1176. Knoll AH, Bambach RK, Canfield DE, Grotzinger JP. 1996. Comparative earth history and late Permian mass extinction. Science 273:452–457. Komrek EV. 1973. Ancient fires. Pp. 219–240 in Proceedings of the Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, June 8–9, Lubbock, Texas. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station. Kukalová-Peck J. 1985. Ephemeroid wing venation based upon new gigantic Carboniferous mayflies and basic morphology, phylogeny, and metamorphosis of pterygote insects (Insecta, Ephemerida). Can. J. Zool. 63:933–955. Kukalová-Peck J. 1987. New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta). Can. J. Zool. 65:2327–2345. Kump LR. 1988. Terrestrial feedback in atmospheric oxygen regulation by fire and phosphorus. Nature 335:152–154. Kump LR. 1989. Alternative modeling approaches to the geochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur and strontium isotopes. Am. J. Sci. 289:390–410. Kump LR. 1989. Chemical stability of the atmosphere and ocean. Glob. Planet. Change 1:123–136. Kump LR, Arthur MA. 1999. Interpreting carbon-isotope excursions: carbonates and organic matter. Chem. Geol. 161:181–198. Kump LR, Garrels RM. 1986. Modeling atmospheric O2 in the global sedimentary redox cycle. Am. J. Sci. 286:336–360. Labandeira CC. 1998. Early history of arthropod and vascular plant associations. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 26:329–377. Lasaga AC. 1989. A new approach to the isotopic modeling of the variation of atmospheric oxygen through the Phanerozoic. Am. J. Sci. 298:411–435. Lasaga AC, Ohmoto H. 2002. The oxygen geochemical cycle: dynamics and stability. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66:361–381. Lawlor DW. 2001. Photosynthesis. New York: Springer. Laws EA, Popp BN, Bidigare RR, Kennicutt MC, Macko SA. 1995. Dependence of phytoplankton carbon isotopic composition on growth rate and [CO2]aq: theoretical considerations and experimental results. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59:1131–1138. Lenton TM, Watson AJ. 2000. Redfield revisited 2: what regulates the oxygen content of the atmosphere? Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 14(1):249–268. Loudon C. 1988. Development of Tenebrio molitor in low oxygen levels. J. Insect Physiol. 34:97–103. Loudon C. 1989. Tracheal hypertrophy in mealworms: design and plasticity in oxygen supply systems. J. Exp. Biol. 147:217–235. Lovelock J. 1988. The Ages of Gaia. New York: Norton.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Mangum CP. 1997. Invertebrate blood oxygen carriers. Pp. 1097–1135 in Handbook of Physiology, vol. 2. New York: Oxford University Press. Mii H, Grossman EL, Yancey TE. 1999. Carboniferous isotope stratigraphies of North America: implications for Carboniferous paleoceanography and Mississippian glaciation. Geol. Soc. A. Bull. 111:960–973. Mill PJ. 1985. Structure and physiology of the respiratory system. Pp. 517–593 in Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, vol. 3, GA Kerkut, LI Gilbert, eds. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. Milliman JD, Syvitski JPM. 1992. Geomorphic tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean: the importance of small mountainous rivers. J. Geol. 100:535–544. Morton JL, Sleep NH. 1985. A mid-ocean ridge thermal model-constraints on the volume of axial hydrothermal heat-flux. J. Geophys. Res. Solids 90:134–153. Nelson M. 2001. A dynamical systems model of the limiting oxygen index test: II. Retardancy due to char formation and addition of inert fillers. Combust. Theory Model. 5:59–83. Orr WC, Sohal RS. 1994. Extension of lifespan by overexpression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 263:1128–1130. Petsch ST. 1999. Comment on “Carbon isotope ratios of Phanerozoic marine cements: reevaluating global carbon and sulfur systems,” by SJ Carpenter and KC Lohmann, 1997, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61:4831–4846. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63:307. Petsch ST, Berner RA. 1998. Coupling the long-term geochemical cycles of carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iron: the effect on atmospheric O2 and the isotopic records of carbon and sulfur. Am. J. Sci. 298:246–262. Petsch ST, Berner RA, Eglinton TI. 2000. A field study of the chemical weathering of ancient sedimentary organic matter. Org. Geochem. 31:475–487. Rachmilevitch S, Reuveni J, Pearcy RW, Gale J. 1999. A high level of atmospheric oxygen, as occurred toward the end Cretaceous period, increased leaf diffusion conductance. J. Exp. Bot. 50:869–872. Rashbash D, Langford B. 1968. Burning of wood in atmospheres of reduced oxygen concentration. Combust. Flame 12:33–40. Raven JA. 1991. Plant responses to high O2 concentrations: relevance to previous high O2 episodes. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 97:19–38. Raven JA, Johnston AM, Parsons R, Kubler J. 1994. The influence of natural and experimental high O2 concentrations on O2-evolving phototrophs. Biol. Rev. 69: 61–94. Rayner JMV. 2002. Palaeogeophysics and the limits to design: gravity, the atmosphere, and the evolution of animal locomotion. In Planet Earth, A Lister, L Rothschild, eds. London: Academic Press. Reid RC, Prausnitz JM, Poling BE. 1987. The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Robinson JM. 1989. Phanerozoic O2 variation, fire, and terrestrial ecology. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 75:223–240. Robinson JM. 1991. Phanerozoic atmospheric reconstructions: a terrestrial perspective. Global Planet. Changes 5:51–62. Rogers AD. 2000. The role of the oceanic oxygen minima in generating biodiversity in the deep sea. Deep-Sea Res. 47:119–148.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Ronov AB. 1976. Global carbon geochemistry, volcanism, carbonate accumulation and life. Geochem. Int. 13:172–195. Rowley DB. 2002. Rate of plate creation and destruction: 180 Ma to present. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 114:927–933. Runnegar B. 1982. The Cambrian explosion: animals or fossils? J. Geol. Soc. Aust. 29:395–411. Runnegar B. 1982. Oxygen requirements, biology and phylogenetic significance of the late Precambrian worm Dickinsonia, and the evolution of the burrowing habit. Alcheringa 6:223–239. Sanudo-Wilhelmy SA, Kustka AB, Gobler CJ, Hutchins DA, Yang M, et al. 2001. Phosphorus limitation of nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium in the central Atlantic Ocean. Nature 411:66–69. Scott AC. 2000. The pre-Quaternary history of fire. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 164:335–371. Shear W. 1991. The early development of terrestrial ecosystems. Science 351:283–289. Shear WA, Kukalová-Peck J. 1990. The ecology of Paleozoic terrestrial arthropods: the fossil evidence. Can. J. Zool. 68:1807–1834. Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM, Ames BN. 1994. Oxidative damage and mitochondrial decay in aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:10771–10778. Smith RMH, Ward PD. 2001. Pattern of vertebrate extinctions across an event bed at the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Geology 29:1147–1150. Spicer JI, Gaston KJ. 1999. Amphipod gigantism dictated by oxygen availability? Ecol. Lett. 2:397–403. Stallard RF. 1985. River chemistry, geology, geomorphology, and soils in the Amazon and Orinoco Basins. Pp. 293–316 in The Chemistry of Weathering, J Drever, ed. Boston, MA: D. Reidel. Strauss H. 1999. Geological evolution from isotope proxy signals—sulfur. Chem. Geol. 161:89–101. Sussot RA. 1980. Effect of heating rate on char yield from forest fuels. USDA Forest Service Research Note INT-295. USDA Forest Service, Ogden, UT. Tewarson A. 2000. Nonmetallic material flammability in oxygen-enriched atmospheres. J. Fire Sci. 18:183–214. Ultsch GR. 1974. Gas exchange in the Sirenidae (Amphibia, Caudata). I. Oxygen consumption of submerged sirenids as a function of body size and respiratory surface area. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 47A:485–498. Van Cappellen P, Ingall ED. 1996. Redox stabilization of the atmosphere and oceans by phosphorus-limited marine productivity. Science 271:493–496. Veizer J, Holser WT, Wilgus CK. 1980. Correlation of C-13-C-12 and S-34-S-32 secular variations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44:579–587. Veizer J, Ala D, Azmy K, Bruckschen P, Buhl D, et al. 1999. 87Sr/86Sr, ±13C and ±18O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater. Chem. Geol. 161:59–88. Vogel S. 1994. Life in Moving Fluids: The Physical Biology of Flow. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Walker JCG. 1986. Global geochemical cycles of atmospheric oxygen. Marine Geol. 70:159–174.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Watson A, Lovelock JE, Margulis L. 1978. Methanogenesis, fires, and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen. Biosystems 10:293–298. Watson AJ. 1978. Consequences for the biosphere of grassland and forest fires. PhD dissertation, Reading University, United Kingdom. Weis-Fogh T. 1964. Diffusion in insect wing muscle, the most active tissue known. J. Exp. Biol. 41:229–256. Weis-Fogh T. 1964. Functional design of the tracheal system of flying insects as compared with the avian lung. J. Exp. Biol. 41:207–227. Wignall PB, Twitchett RJ. 1996. Oceanic anoxia and the end Permian mass extinction. Science 272:1155–1158. Wootton RJ. 1988. The historical ecology of aquatic insects: an overview. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 62:477–492. Wootton RJ. 1990. Major insect radiations. Pp. 187–208 in Major Evolutionary Radiations, PD Taylor, GP Larwood, eds. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. Wootton RJ, Ellington CP. 1991. Biomechanics and the origin of insect flight. Pp. 99–112 in Biomechanics in Evolution, JMV Rayner, RJ Wootton, eds. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION (CHAPTER 3) Allison PA, Brett CE. 1995. In situ benthos and paleo-oxygenation in the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada. Geology 23:1079–1082. Aronson RB. 1992. Decline of the Burgess Shale fauna: ecologic or taphonomic restriction? Lethaia 25:225–229. Bergström J. 1986. Opabinia and Anomalocaris, unique Cambrian “arthropods”. Lethaia 19:241–246. Bousfield EL. 1995. A contribution to the natural classification of Lower and Middle Cambrian arthropods: food-gathering and feeding mechanisms. Amphipacifica 2:3–34. Briggs DEG. 1978. The morphology, mode of life, and affinities of Canadaspis perfecta (Crustacea: Phyllocarida), Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 281:439–487. Briggs DEG. 1979. Anomalocaris, the largest known Cambrian arthropod. Palaeontology 22:631–664. Briggs DEG. 1992. Phylogenetic significance of the Burgess Shale crustacean Canadaspis. Acta Zool. (Stockholm) 73:293–300. Briggs DEG, Fortey RA. 1989. The early radiation and relationships of the major arthropod groups. Science 246:241–243. Briggs DEG, Whittington HB. 1985. Modes of life of arthropods from the Burgess Shale, British Columbia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh 76:149–160. Bruton DL, Jensen A, Jacquet R. 1985. The use of models in the understanding of Cambrian arthropod morphology. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh 76:365–369. Budd G. 1993. A Cambrian gilled lobopod from Greenland. Nature 364:709–711. Budd GE. 1996. The morphology of Opabinia regalis and the reconstruction of the arthropod stem-group. Lethaia 29:1–14.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Butterfield NJ. 1990. Organic preservation of non-mineralizing organisms and the taphonomy of the Burgess Shale. Paleobiology 16:272–286. Butterfield NJ. 1990. A reassessment of the enigmatic Burgess Shale fossil Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthew) and its relationship to the polychaete Canadia spinosa Walcott. Paleobiology 16:287–303. Butterfield NJ. 1997. Plankton ecology and the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. Paleobiology 23:247–262. Chen J, Ramsköld L, Zhou G. 1994. Evidence for monophyly and arthropod affinity of Cambrian predators. Science 264:1304–1308. Chen J, Zhou G, Ramsköld L. 1995. A new Early Cambrian onychophoran-like animal Paucipodia gen. nov., from the Chengjiang fauna, China. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh: Earth Sci. 85:275–282. Chen J, Edgecombe GD, Ramsköld L. 1997. Morphological and ecological disparity in naraoiids (Arthropoda) from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, China. Rec. Aust. Mus. 49:1–24. Collins D. 1996. The “evolution” of Anomalocaris and its classification in the arthropods Class Dinocarida (Nov.) and Order Radiodonta (Nov.). J. Paleontol. 70:280–293. Collins D, Briggs D, Conway Morris S. 1983. New Burgess Shale fossil sites reveal Middle Cambrian faunal complex. Science 222:163–167. Conway Morris S. 1977. A new entoproct-like organism from the Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Palaeontology 20:833–845. Conway Morris S. 1977. Fossil priapulid worms. Spec. Pap. Palaeontol. 20:i–iv, 1–95. Conway Morris S. 1979. The Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian) fauna. Annu. Rev. Ecol. System. 10:327–349. Conway Morris S. 1979. Middle Cambrian polychaetes from the Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 285:227–274. Conway Morris S, ed. 1982. Atlas of the Burgess Shale. London: Palaeontological Association. Conway Morris S. 1985. The Middle Cambrian metazoan Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthew) from the Burgess Shale and Ogygopsis Shale, British Columbia, Canada. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 307:507–586. Conway Morris S. 1985. Cambrian Lagerstätten: their distribution and significance. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 311:49–65. Conway Morris S. 1986. The community structure of the Middle Cambrian Phyllopod bed (Burgess Shale). Palaeontology 29:423–467. Conway Morris S. 1989. Burgess Shale faunas and the Cambrian explosion. Science 246:339–346. Conway Morris S. 1989. The persistence of Burgess Shale-type faunas: implications for the evolution of deeper-water faunas. Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh: Earth Sci. 80: 271–283. Conway Morris S. 1990. Late Precambrian and Cambrian soft-bodied faunas. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 18:101–122. Conway Morris S. 1992. Burgess Shale-type faunas in the context of the “Cambrian explosion”: a review. J. Geol. Soc. London 149:631–636.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Conway Morris S. 1993. Ediacaran-like fossils in Cambrian Burgess Shale-type faunas of North America. Palaeontology 36:593–635. Conway Morris S. 1993. The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. Nature 361:219–225. Conway Morris S. 1994. Why molecular biology needs palaeontology. Development (Suppl.):1–13. Conway Morris S, Peel JS. 1995. Articulated halkieriids from the Lower Cambrian of North Greenland and their role in early protostome evolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 347:305–358. Conway Morris S, Robison RA. 1982. The enigmatic medusoid Peytoia and a comparison of some Cambrian biotas. J. Paleontol. 56:116–122. Conway Morris S, Whittington HB. 1985. Fossils of the Burgess Shale, a national treasure in Yoho National Park, British Columbia. Misc. Rep. Geol. Surv. Can. 43:1–31. Degan S, Conway Morris S, Xianliang Z. 1996. A Pikaia-like chordate from the Lower Cambrian of China. Nature 384:157–158. Degan S, Xingliang Z, Ling C. 1996. Reinterpretation of Yunnanozoon as the earliest known hemichordate. Nature 380:428–430. Dzik J. 1995. Yunnanozoon and the ancestry of chordates. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 40:341–360. Erwin DM. 1993. The origin of metazoan development: a palaeobiological perspective. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 50:255–274. Fritz WH. 1971. Geological setting of the Burgess Shale. Pp. 1155–1170 in Symposium on Extraordinary Fossils. Proceedings of the North American Paleontological Convention, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, September 5–7, 1969, Part I. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press. Gould SJ. 1986. Wonderful Life. New York: Norton. Gould SJ. 1991. The disparity of the Burgess Shale arthropod fauna and the limits of cladistic analysis: why we must strive to quantify morphospace. Paleobiology 17: 411–423. Grotzinger JP, Bowring SA, Saylor BZ, Kaufman AJ. 1995. Biostratigraphic and geochronologic constraints on early animal evolution. Science 270:598–604. Hou X, Bergström J. 1995. Cambrian lobopodians—ancestors of extant onychophorans? Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 114:3–19. Hou X, Ramsköld L, Bergström J. 1991. Composition and preservation of the Chengjiang fauna—a Lower Cambrian soft-bodied biota. Zool. Scrip. 20:395–411. Hou X, Bergström J, Ahlberg P. 1995. Anomalocaris and other large animals in the Lower Cambrian of southwest China. Geol. Fören. Stockh. Förhandl. 117:163–183. Huilin L, Shixue H, Shishan Z, Yonghe T. 1997. New occurrence of the early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna from Haikou, Kunming, Yunnan province, and study of Trilobitoidea. Acta Geol. Sin. 71:97–104. Kirschvink JL, Magaritz M, Ripperdan RL, Zhuravlev AY, Rozanov AY. 1991. The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary: magnetostratigraphy and carbon isotopes resolve correlation problems between Siberia, Morocco, and South China. GSA Today 1: 69–91. Kirschvink JL, Ripperdan RL, Evans DA. 1997. Evidence for a large-scale Early Cambrian reorganization of continental masses by inertial interchange true polar wander. Science 277:541–545.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Ludvigsen R. 1989. The Burgess Shale: not in the shadow of the cathedral escarpment. Geosci. Can. 16:51–59. Mankiewicz C. 1992. Obruchevella and other microfossils in the Burgess Shale: preservation and affinity. J. Paleontol. 66:717–729. McMenamin MAS, McMenamin DLS. 1990. The Emergence of Animals—The Cambrian Breakthrough. New York: Columbia University Press. Nedin C. 1995. The Emu Bay Shale, a Lower Cambrian fossil Lagerstätten, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Mem. Assoc. Aust. Palaeontol. 18:31–40. Ramsköld L. 1992. Homologies in Cambrian Onychophora. Lethaia 25:443–460. Ramsköld L, Xianguang H. 1991. New early Cambrian animal and onychophoran affinities of enigmatic metazoans. Nature 351:225–228. Rigby JK. 1986. Sponges of the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian), British Columbia. Palaeontogr. Can. 2:1–105. Robison RA, Wiley EO. 1995. A new arthropod, Meristosoma: more fallout from the Cambrian explosion. J. Paleontol. 69:447–459. Simonetta AM, Conway Morris S, eds. 1991. The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Simonetta AM, Insom E. 1993. New animals from the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian) and their possible significance for the understanding of the Bilateria. Boll. Zool. 60:97–107. Towe KM. 1996. Fossil preservation in the Burgess Shale. Lethaia 29:107–108. Valentine JW. 1994. Late Precambrian bilaterans: grades and clades. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:6751–6757. Valentine JW, Erwin DH, Jablonski D. 1996. Developmental evolution of metazoan body plans: the fossil evidence. Dev. Biol. 173:373–381. Whittington HB. 1971. The Burgess Shale: history of research and preservation of fossils. Pp. 1170–1201 in Symposium on Extraordinary Fossils. Proceedings of the North American Paleontological Convention, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, September 5–7, 1969, Part I. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press. Whittington HB. 1975. The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 271:1–43. Whittington HB. 1975. Trilobites with appendages from the Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia. Foss. Strata 4:97–136. Whittington HB. 1979. Early arthropods, their appendages and relationships. Pp. 253–268 in The Origin of Major Invertebrate Groups, MR House, ed. London: Academic Press. Whittington HB. 1980. The significance of the fauna of the Burgess Shale, Middle Cambrian, British Columbia. Proc. Geol. Assoc. 91:118–127. Whittington HB. 1981. Rare arthropods from the Burgess Shale, Middle Cambrian, British Columbia. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 292:329–357. Whittington HB, Briggs DEG. 1985. The largest Cambrian animal, Anomalocaris, Burgess Shale, British Columbia. Phil. Trans. R. London B 309:569–609. Wills MA, Briggs DEG, Fortey RA. 1994. Disparity as an evolutionary index: a comparison of Cambrian and Recent arthropods. Paleobiology 20:93–130. Yochelson EL. 1996. Discovery, collection, and description of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale biota by Charles Doolittle Walcott. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 140:469–545.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Hotton N. 1967. Stratigraphy and sedimentation in the Beaufort Series (Permian-Triassic), South Africa. Pp. 390-428 in Essays in Paleontology and Stratigraphy, C Teichert, EL Yochelson, eds. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, Department of Geology Special Publication. Hsu K, Mckenzie J. 1990. Carbon isotope anomalies at era boundaries: global catastrophes and their ultimate cause. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 247:61–70. Isozaki Y. 1994. Superanoxia across the Permo-Triassic boundary: record in accreted deep-sea pelagic chert in Japan. Pp. 805–812 in Global Environments and Resources. Canadian Society Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 17. Jablonski D. 1991. Extinctions: a paleontological perspective. Science 253:754–757. Keyser A, Smith R. 1979. Vertebrate biozonation of the Beaufort Group with special reference to the Western Karoo Basin. Mem. Geol. Surv. S. Afr. 12:1–36. King G. 1990. Dicynodonts and the end Permian event. Palaentol. Afr. 27:31–39. Kirchner JW, Weil A. 2000. Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record. Nature 404:177–180. Kitching J. 1977. Distribution of the Karoo vertebrate fauna. Mem. B. Price Inst. Palaentol. Res. 1:1–131. Knoll A, Bambach R, Canfield D, Grotzinger J. 1996. Comparative darth history and Late Permian mass extinction. Science 273:452–457. Kruess A, Tscharntke T. 1994. Habitat fragmentation, species loss and biological control. Science 264:1581–1584. Morante R. 1996. Permian and early Triassic isotopic records of carbon and strontium events in Australia and a scenario of events about the Permian-Triassic boundary. Hist. Geol. 11:289–310. Raup D. 1979. Size of the Permo-Triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications. Science 206:217–218. Retallack G. 1995. Permian-Triassic crisis on land. Science 267:77–80. Retallack G. 1999. Postapocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by Earliest Triassic paleosols in the Sandhy Basin, Australia. GSA Bull. 111:52–70. Retallack G, Krull E. 1999. Landscape ecological shift at the Permian/Triassic boundary in Antarctica. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 46:785–812. Rubidge B. 1995. Biostratigraphy of the Beaufort Group (Karoo Sequence), South Africa. Geol. Surv. S. Afr. Biostratigr. 1:1–43. Sepkoski J. 1984. A model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. Paleobiology 10:246–267. Smith R. 1990. A review of stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Karoo Basin of South Africa. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 10:117–137. Smith R. 1995. Changing fluvial environments across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin, South Africa and possible causes of tetrapod extinctions. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 117:81–104. Stanley S. 1987. Extinctions. New York: W. H. Freeman. Stanley S, Yang X. 1994. A double mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. Science 26:1340–1344. Stuart C, Stuart T. A Field Guide to the Larger Animals of Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. Teichert C. 1990. The end-Permian extinction. Pp. 161–190 in Global Events in Earth History, E Kauffman, O Walliser, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere DINOSAURS AND BIRDS (CHAPTERS 6, 7, AND 8) Avery RA. 1982. Field studies of body temperatures and thermoregulation. Pp. 93–166 in Biology of the Reptilia, vol. 12, C Gans, HF Pough, eds. London: Academic Press. Baker MA. 1982. Brain cooling in endotherms in heat and exercise. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 44:85–96. Bakker RT. 1968. The superiority of dinosaurs. Discovery 3:11–12. Bakker RT. 1971. Dinosaur physiology and the origin of mammals. Evolution 25:636–658. Bakker RT. 1975. Dinosaur renaissance. Sci. Am. 232:58–78. Bakker RT. 1980. Dinosaur heresy—dinosaur renaissance. Pp. 351–462 in A Cold Look at the Warm-blooded Dinosaurs, RDK Thomas, EC Olson, eds. Boulder, CO: Westview. Bakker RT. 1986. The Dinosaur Heresies. New York: Morrow. Bang B. 1971. Functional anatomy of the olfactory system in 23 orders of birds. Acta Anat. (Basel) 79:1–71. Barrick RE, Showers WJ. 1994. Thermophysiology of Tyrannosaurus rex: evidence from oxygen isotopes. Science 265:222–224. Barsbold R. 1983. Carnivorous dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of Mongolia: the joint Soviet-Mongolian palaeontological expedition. Transactions 19:1–117. Bellairs ADA, Jenkin CR. 1960. The skeleton of birds. Pp. 241–300 in Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds, AJ Marshall, ed. New York: Academic Press. Bennett AF. 1973. Blood physiology and oxygen transport during activity in two lizards, Varanus gouldii and Sauromalus hispidus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 46A:673–690. Bennett AF. 1973. Ventilation in two species of lizards during rest and activity. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 46A:653–671. Bennett AF. 1982. The energetics of reptilian activity. Pp. 155–199 in Biology of the Reptilia, vol. 13, C Gans, HF Pough, eds. New York: Academic Press. Bennett AF. 1991. The evolution of activity capacity. J. Exp. Biol. 160:1–23. Bennett AF, Dalzell B. 1973. Dinosaur physiology: a critique. Evolution 27:170–174. Bennett AF, Dawson WR. 1976. Metabolism. Pp. 122–127 in Biology of the Reptilia, vol. 5, C Gans, WR Dawson, eds. New York: Academic Press. Bennett AF, Ruben JA. 1979. Endothermy and activity in vertebrates. Science 206:649–654. Bennett AF, Seymour RS, Webb GJW. 1985. Mass dependence of anaerobic metabolism and acid-base disturbance during activity in the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylusporosus. J. Exp. Biol. 118:161–171. Bernstein MH, et al. 1984. Extrapulmonary gas exchange enhances brain oxygen in pigeons. Science 226:564–566. Brackenbury JH. 1987. Ventilation of the lung-air sac system. Pp. 36–69 in Bird Respiration, TJ Sellers, ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Britt BB, Makovicky PJ, Gauthier J, Bonde N. 1998. Postcranial pneumatization in Archaeopteryx. Nature 395:374–376. Brooke M, Birkhead TR. 1991. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Ornithology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Burnham DA, Derstler KL, Currie PJ, Bakker RT, Zhou Z-H, Ostrom JH. 2000. Remarkable new birdlike dinosaur (Theropoda: Maniraptora) from the Upper Cretaceous of Montana. Univ. Kans. Paleontol. Contrib. 13:1–14.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Carrier DR, Farmer CG. 2000. The evolution of pelvic aspiration in archosaurs. Paleobiology 26:271–293. Carrier DR, Farmer CG. 2000. The integration of ventilation on locomotion in archosaurs. Am. Zool. 40:87–100. Case TJ. 1978. On the evolution and adaptive significance of postnatal growth rates in terrestrial vertebrates. Q. Rev. Biol. 53:243–282. Chatterjee S. 1997. The beginnings of avian flight. Pp. 311–335 in Dinofest International: Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by Arizona State University, DL Wolberg, et al., eds. Philadelphia, PA: Academy of Natural Sciences. Chen P-J, Dong Z-M, Zhen S-N. 1998. An exceptionally well-preserved theropod dinosaur from the Yixian formation of China. Nature 391:147–152. Chinsamy A. 1994. Dinosaur bone histology: implications and inferences. Pp. 317–323 in Dinofest, Paleontological Society Special Publication No. 7, GD Rosenberg, D Wolberg, eds. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Chinsamy A, Dodson P. 1995. Inside a dinosaur bone. Am. Sci. 83:174–180. Chinsamy A, Hillenius WJ. In press. Physiology of nonavian dinosaurs. In The Dinosauria, DB Weishampel, et al., eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chinsamy A, Chiappe LM, Dodson P. 1994. Growth rings in Mesozoic birds. Nature 368:196–197. Clark JM, Norell MA, Chiappe LM. 1999. An oviraptorid skeleton from the Late Cretaceous of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, preserved in an avian-like brooding position over an oviraptorid nest. Am. Mus. Novit. 3265:1–35. Colbert EH, Mook CC. 1951. The ancestral crocodilian Protosuchus. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 97:143–182. Coombs WP, Jr. 1989. Modern analogs for dinosaur nesting and parental behavior. Pp. 21–53 in Paleobiology of the Dinosaurs, JO Farlow, ed. Boulder, CO: Books on Demand. Coombs WP, Jr., Maryanska T. 1990. Ankylosauria. Pp. 456–483 in The Dinosauria, DB Weishampel, et al., eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Cott HB. 1961. Scientific results of an inquiry into the ecology and economic status of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Uganda and Northern Rhodesia. Trans. Zool. Soc. London 29:211–357. Cott HB. 1971. Parental care in the Crocodilia, with special reference to Crocodylus niloticus in Crocodiles. Pp. 166–180 in Proceedings of the First Meeting of Crocodile Specialists. Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Crush PJ. 1984. A late Upper Triassic Sphenosuchid crocodilian from Wales. Palaeontology 27:131–157. Currie PJ. 1997. Theropoda. Pp. 731–737 in Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs, PJ Currie, K Padian, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Dal Sasso C, Signore M. 1998. Exceptional soft-tissue preservation in a theropod dinosaur from Italy. Nature 392:383–387. Dal Sasso C, Signore M. 1998. In situ preservation in Scipionyx. P. 23 in Third European Workshop of Vertebrate Paleontology—Maastricht, JWM Jagt, et al., eds. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Naturhistorisches Museum.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Darveau C-A, Suarez RK, Andrews RD, Hochachka PW. 2002. Allometric cascade as a unifying principle of body mass effects on metabolism. Nature 417:166–170. Dietz MW, Drent RH. 1997. Effect of growth rate and body mass on resting metabolic rate in galliform chicks. Physiol. Zool. 70:493–501. Dodson P. 2000. Origin of birds: the final solution? Am. Zool. 40:504–512. Dodson P, Currie PJ. 1990. Neoceratopsia. Pp. 593–618 in The Dinosauria, DB Weishampel, et al., eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Dong Z-M, Currie PJ. 1998. On the discovery of an oviraptorid skeleton on a nest of eggs at Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic of China. Can. J. Earth Sci. 33:631–636. Drent R. 1972. The natural history of incubation. Pp. 262–311 in Breeding Biology of Birds, DS Farner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. Duncker H-R. 1971. The lung air sac system of birds. Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 45:1–171. Dunker H-R. 1972. Structure of avian lungs. Respir. Physiol. 14:44–63. Dunker H-R. 1974. Structure of the avian respiratory tract. Respir. Physiol. 22:1–19. Dunker H-R. 1978. General morphological principles of amniote lungs. Pp. 2–15 in Respiratory Function in Birds, Adult and Embryonic, J Piiper, ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Dunker H-R. 1989. The lung air sac system of birds. Pp. 39–67 in Form and Function in Birds, vol. 1, AS King, J McLelland, eds. New York: Academic Press. Else PL, Hulbert AJ. 1981. Comparison of the “mammal machine” and the “reptile machine”: energy production. Am. J. Physiol. 240:R3–R9. Farlow JO. 1990. Dinosaur energetics and thermal biology. Pp. 43–55 in The Dinosauria, DB Weishampel, et al., eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Farlow JO, Dodson P, Chinsamy A. 1995. Dinosaur biology. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 26:445–471. Farmer CG, Carrier DR. 2000. Pelvic aspiration in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J. Exp. Biol. 203:1679–1687. Farmer CG, Carrier DR. 2000. Ventilation and gas exchange during treadmill locomotion in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J. Exp. Biol. 203:1671–1678. Fedde MR. 1987. Respiratory muscles. Pp. 3–37 in Bird Respiration, vol. 1, TJ Sellers, ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Feduccia A. 1999. Accommodating the clado-1,2,3p2,3,4 gram. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:4740–4742. Feduccia A. 1999. The Origin and Evolution of Birds, 2nd ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Fisher PE, Russell DA, Stoskopf MK, Barrick RE, Hammer M, Kuzmitz AA. 2000. Cardiovascular evidence for an intermediate or higher metabolic state in an ornithsichian dinosaur. Science 288:503–505. Forster CA. 1990. The postcranial skeleton of the ornithopod dinosaur Tenontosaurus tilletti. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 10:273–294. Frair W, Ackman RG, Mrosovsky. 1972. Body temperature of Dermochelys coriacea: warm turtle from cold water. Science 177:791–793. Franklin C, Seebacher F, Grigg GC, Axelsson M. 2000. At the crocodilian heart of the matter. Science 289:1687–1688.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Frey E. 1988. The carrying system of crocodilians: a biomechanical and phylogenic analysis. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd. A426:1–60. Gans C. 1996. An overview of parental care among the Reptilia. Adv. Study. Behav. 25:145–157. Gans C, Clark B. 1976. Studies on the ventilation of Caiman crocodilus (Reptilia: Crocodilia). Respir. Physiol. 26:285–301. Geist NR. 2000. Nasal respiratory turbinate function in birds. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 73:581–589. Geist NR, Feduccia A. 2000. Gravity-defying behaviors: identifying models for protoaves. Am. Zool. 40:664–675. Geist NR, Jones TD. 1996. Juvenile skeletal structure and the reproductive habits of dinosaurs. Science 272:712–714. Gill FB. 1994. Ornithology, 2nd ed. New York: W. H. Freeman. Goodrich ES. 1930. Studies on the Structure and Development of Vertebrates. London: Macmillan. Greenberg N. 1980. Physiological and behavioral thermoregulation in living reptiles. Pp. 141–166 in A Cold Look at the Warm-blooded Dinosaurs, RDK Thomas, EC Olson, eds. Boulder, CO: Westview. Gregory WK. 1951. Evolution Emerging. New York: Macmillan. Grenard S. 1991. Handbook of Alligators and Crocodiles. Malabar, FL: Krieger. Hamilton WJ, Heppner F. 1966. Radiant solar energy and the function of black homeotherm pigmentation: a hypothesis. Science 155:196–197. Harwell A, van Leer D, Ruben JA. 2002. New evidence for hepatic-piston breathing in theropods. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 22:63A. Hemmingsen AM. 1960. Energy metabolism as related to body size and respiratory surfaces and its evolution. Rep. Steno. Mem. Hosp. 9:7–110. Hengst R. 1998. Ventilation and gas exchange in theropod dinosaurs. Science 281:47–48. Hicks JW, Farmer CG. 1998. Ventilation and gas exchange in theropod dinosaurs. Science 281:47–48. Hicks JW, Farmer CG. 1999. Gas exchange potential in reptilian lungs: implications for the dinosaur-avian connection. Respir. Physiol. 117:73–83. Hildebrand M, Goslow GE, Jr. 2001. Analysis of Vertebrate Structure. New York: Wiley. Hillenius WJ. 1992. The evolution of nasal turbinates and mammalian endothermy. Paleobiology 18:17–29. Hillenius WJ. 1994. Turbinates in therapsids: evidence for Late Permian origins of mammalian endothermy. Evolution 48:207–229. Hofstetter R, Gasc J-P. 1969. Vertebrae and ribs of modern reptiles. Pp. 201–310 in Biology of the Reptilia, vol. 1, Morphology A, C Gans, et al., eds. London: Academic Press. Horner CC, Horner JR, Weishampel DB. 2001. Comparative internal cranial morphology of some hadrosaurian dinosaurs using computerized tomographic x-ray analysis and rapid prototyping. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 21:64A. Horner JR. 2000. Dinosaur reproduction and parenting. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28:19–45. Horner JR, de Ricqles AJ, Padian K. 2000. Long bone histology of the hadrosaurid dinosaur Maisaura peeblesorum: growth dynamics and physiology based on an ontogenetic series of skeletal elements. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 20:115–129.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Horner JR, Padian K, de Ricqles AJ. 2001. Comparative osteohistology of some embryonic and perinatal archosaurs: developmental and behavioral implications for dinosaurs. Paleobiology 27:39–58. Hutchinson JR. 2001. The evolution of pelvic osteology and soft tissues on the line to extant birds (Neorithes). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 131:123–168. Ingelstedt S. 1956. Studies on the conditioning of air in the respiratory tract. Acta Otolaryngol. 131:1–79. Jackson DC, Schmidt-Neilsen K. 1964. Countercurrent heat exchange in the respiratory passages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51:1192–1197. Jones TD, Ruben JA. 2001. Respiratory structure and function in theropod dinosaurs and some related taxa. Pp. 443–461 in Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom (February 13–14, 1999): New Perspectives on the Origins and Evolution of Birds, J Gauthier, LF Gall, eds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Jones TD, Ruben JA, Martin LD, Kurochkin EN, Feduccia A, Maderson PFA, Hillenius WJ, Geist NR. 2000. Nonavian feathers in a Late Triassic Archosaur. Science 288:2202–2205. Jones TD, Ruben JA, Maderson PFA, Martin LD. 2001. Longisquama fossil and feather morphology. Science 291:1899–1902. Kemp TS. 1988. Haeomothermia or Archosauria? The interrelationships of mammals, birds, and crocodiles. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 92:67–104. King AS. 1966. Structural and functional aspects of the avian lung and air sacs. Int. Rev. Gen. Exp. Zool. 2:171–267. King AS, King DZ. 1979. Avian morphology. Pp. 1–38 in Form and Function in Birds, AS King, J McLelland, eds. London: Academic Press. Kolodny Y, Lutz B, Sander M, Clemens WA. 1996. Dinosaur bones: fossils or pseudomorphs? The pitfalls of physiology reconstruction from apatitic fossils. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 126:161–167. Lang JW. 1989. Social behavior. Pp. 102–117 in Crocodiles and Alligators, CA Ross, ed. New York: Facts-on-File. Lustick S, Talbot S, Fox E. 1970. Absorption of radiant energy in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). Condor 72:471–473. Maina JN, Africa M. 2000. Inspiratory aerodynamic valving in the avian lung: functional morphology of the extrapulmonary primary bronchus. J. Exp. Biol. 203:2865–2876. Marsh OC. 1883. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. VI. Restoration of Brontosaurus. Am. J. Sci. 26:81–85. Martill DM, Frey E, Sues H-D, Cruickshank ARI. 2000. Skeletal remains of a small theropod dinosaur with associated soft structures from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of northeastern Brazil. Can. J. Earth Sci. 37:891–900. Martin LD. 1991. Mesozoic birds and the origin of birds. Pp. 485–540 in Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods: Controversy and Consensus, H-P Schultze, L Trueb, eds. Ithaca, NY: Comstock. Martoff BS, Palmer WM, Bailey JR, Harrison JRI. 1980. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. Maryanska T, Osmólska H, and Wolsan M. 2002. Avialan status for Oviraptorosauria. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 47:97–116.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere McIntosh JS. 1990. Sauropoda. Pp. 345–401 in The Dinosauria, DB Weishampel, et al., eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. McLelland J. 1989. Anatomy of lungs and air sacs. Pp. 221–279 in Form and Function in Birds, vol. 4, AS King, J McLelland, eds. London: Academic Press. McNab BK, Auffenberg WA. 1976. The effect of large body size on temperature regulation of the Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 55A:345–350. Nagy KA. 1987. Field metabolic rates and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecol. Monogr. 57:111–128. Norell M, Clark JM. 1996. Dinosaurs and their youth. Science 273:165–168. Norell MA. 1995. Origins of the feathered nest. Nat. Hist. 104:58–61. Norell MA, Makovicky PJ. 1997. Important features of the dromaeosaur skeleton: information from a new specimen. Am. Mus. Novit. 3215:1–28. Norell MA, Makovicky PJ. 1999. Important features of the dromaeosaur skeleton. II. Information from newly collected specimens of Velociraptor mongoliensis. Am. Mus. Novit. 3282:1–44. Norell MA, Clark JM, Chiappe LM, Dashzeveg D. 1995. A nesting dinosaur. Nature 378:774–776. Norman DB. 1980. On the ornithischian dinosaur Iguanodon bernissartensis from the Lower Cretaceous of Bernissart (Belgium). Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg. Mem. 178:1–103. Novas FE. 1993. New information on the systematics and postcranial skeleton of Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis (Theropoda: Herrerasauridae) from the Ischigualasto formation (Upper Triassic) of Argentina. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 13:400–423. O’Conner MP, Dodson P. 1999. Biophysical constraints on the thermal ecology of dinosaurs. Paleobiology 25:341–368. Ohmart RD, Lasiewski RC. 1971. Roadrunners: energy conservation by hypothermia and absorption of sunlight. Science 172:67–69. Olson JM. 1992. Growth, the development of endothermy, and the allocation of energy in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius pheoniceus) during the nestling period. Physiol. Zool. 65:125–152. Ostrom JH. 1969. A new theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. Postilla 128:1–17. Ostrom JH. 1991. The question of the origin of birds. Pp. 467–484 in Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods: Controversy and Consensus, H-P Schultze, L Trueb, eds. Ithaca, NY: Comstock. Padian K, Horner JR. 2002. Typology versus transformation in the origin of birds. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17:120–124. Paladino FV, O’Conner MP, Spotila JR. 1990. Metabolism of leatherback turtles, gigantothermy, and thermoregulation of dinosaurs. Nature 344:858–860. Paladino FV, Spotila JR, Dodson P. 1997. A blueprint for giants: modeling the physiology of large dinosaurs. Pp. 491–504 in The Complete Dinosaur, JO Farlow, MK Brett-Surnam, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Paul GS. 2001. Were the respiratory complexes of predatory dinosaurs like crocodilians or birds? Pp. 463–482 in Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom (February 13–14, 1999): New Perspectives on the Origins and Evolution of Birds, J Gauthier, LF Gall, eds. New Haven, CT: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Pearson OP. 1954. Habits of the lizard Liolaemus multiformis multiformis at high latitudes in southern Peru. Copeia 1954:111–116. Perez-Moreno BP, Sanz JL, Buscalioni AD, Moratella JJ, Ortega F, Rasskin-Gutman D. 1994. A unique multi-toothed ornithomimisaur dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Nature 370:363–367. Perry SF. 1983. Reptilian lungs: functional anatomy and evolution. Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 79:1–83. Perry SF. 1989. Mainstreams in the evolution of vertebrate respiratory structures. Pp. 1–67 in Form and Function in Birds, vol. 4, AS King, J McLelland, eds. London: Academic Press. Perry SF. 1992. Gas exchange strategies in reptiles and the origin of the avian lung. Pp. 149–167 in Physiological Adaptations in Vertebrates: Respiration, Circulation, and Metabolism, SC Wood, et al., eds. New York: Marcel Dekker. Perry SF. 2001. Functional morphology of the reptilian and avian respiratory systems and its implications for theropod dinosaurs. Pp. 429–441 in Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom (February 13–14, 1999): New Perspectives on the Origins and Evolution of Birds, J Gauthier, LF Gall, eds. New Haven, CT: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. Perry SF, Duncker H-R. 1980. Interrelationships of static mechanical factors and anatomical structure in lung evolution. J. Comp. Physiol. B 138:321–334. Perry SF, Reuter C. 1999. Hypothetical lung structure of Brachiosaurus (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) based on functional constraints. Mitt. Mus. Nat. Berl. Geowissenschaftliche Reihe 2:75–79. Peters DS, Gorgner E. 1992. A comparative study on the claws of Archaeopteryx. Pp. 29–37 in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium of Avian, K Campbell, ed. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Museum of Natural History Press. Pough FH, Andrews RM, Cadle JE, Crump ML, Savitzky AH, Wells KD. 1998. Herpetology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Proctor DF, Andersen I, Lundqvist GR. 1977. Human nasal mucosal function at controlled temperatures. Respir. Physiol. 30:109–124. Prum RO. 2001. Longisquama fossil and feather morphology. Science 291:1899–1900. Randall D, Burggren WW, French K. 2002. Eckert’s Animal Physiology: Mechanisms and Adaptations, 5th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman. Randolph SE. 1994. The relative timing of the origin of flight and endothermy: evidence from the comparative biology of birds and mammals. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 112: 389–397. Reid REH. 1997. Dinosaurian physiology: the case for “intermediate” physiology. Pp. 449–473 in The Complete Dinosaur, JO Farlow, MK Brett-Surnam, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Ricklefs RE. 1979. Adaptation, constraint, and compromise in avian post-natal development. Biol. Rev. Camb. Phil. Soc. 54:269–290. Romer AS. 1956. Osteology of the Reptiles. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Rowe T, McBride EF, Sereno PC. 2001. Dinosaur with a heart of stone. Science 291:783. Royer DL, Osborne CP, Beerling DJ. 2002. High CO2 increases the freezing sensitivity of plants: implications for paleoclimatic reconstructions from fossil floras. Geology 30:963–966.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Ruben JA. 1991. Reptilian physiology and the flight capacity of Archaeopteryx. Evolution 45:1–17. Ruben JA. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from physiology to fossils. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 57:69–95. Ruben JA. 1996. Evolution of endothermy in mammals, birds and their ancestors. Pp. 347–376 in Animals and Temperature: Phenotypic and Evolutionary Adaptation, IA Johnston, AF Bennett, eds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Ruben JA, Jones TD. 2000. Selective factors for the origin of fur and feathers. Am. Zool. 40:585–596. Ruben JA, Hillenius WJ, Geist NR, Leitch A, Jones TD, Currie PJ, Horner JR, Espe G III. 1996. The metabolic status of some Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. Science 273:1204–1207. Ruben JA, Jones TD, Geist NR, Hillenius WJ. 1997. Lung structure and ventilation in theropod dinosaurs and early birds. Science 278:1267–1270. Ruben JA, Leitch A, Hillenius WJ, Geist NR, Jones TD. 1997. New insights into the metabolic physiology of dinosaurs. Pp. 505–518 in The Complete Dinosaur, JO Farlow, MK Brett-Surnam, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Ruben JA, Jones TD, Geist NR, Hillenius WJ. 1998. Ventilation and gas exchange in theropod dinosaurs. Science 281:47–48. Ruben JA, Dal Sasso C, Geist NR, Hillenius WJ, Jones TD, Signore M. 1999. Pulmonary function and metabolic physiology of theropod dinosaurs. Science 283:514–516. Ruxton GD. 2000. Statistical power analysis: application to an investigation of dinosaur thermal physiology. J. Zool. 252:239–241. Scheid P, Piiper J. 1989. Respiratory mechanics and air flow in birds. Pp. 369–388 in Form and Function in Birds, vol. 4, AS King, J McLelland, eds. New York: Academic Press. Schmidt-Neilsen K. 1971. How birds breathe. Sci. Am. 225:72–79. Schmidt-Neilsen K. 1984. Scaling. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Schmidt-Neilsen K. 1990. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment, 4th ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Seebacher F, Grigg GC, Beard LA. 1999. Crocodiles as dinosaurs: behavioral thermo-regulation in very large ectotherms leads to high and stable body temperatures. J. Exp. Biol. 202:77–86. Sereno PC, Chao S. 1988. Psittacosaurus meileyingensis. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 8:353–365. Seymour RS. 1979. Dinosaur eggs: gas conductance through the shell, water loss during incubation and clutch size. Paleobiology 5:1–11. Shine R. 1988. Parental care in reptiles. Pp. 275–329 in Biology of the Reptilia, C Gans, RB Huey, eds. New York: Liss. Spotila JR, O’Conner MP, Dodson P, Paladino FV. 1991. Hot and cold running dinosaurs: body size, metabolism and migration. Mod. Geol. 16:203–227. Standora EA, Spotila JR, Keinath JA, Shoop CR. 1984. Body temperatures, diving cycles, and movement in the subadult leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea. Herpetologica 40:169–176. Starck JM. 1996. Comparative morphology and cytokinetics of skeletal growth in hatchlings of altricial and precocial birds. Zool. Anz. 235:53–75. Starck JM, Chinsamy A. 2002. Bone microstructure and developmental plasticity in birds and other dinosaurs. J. Morphol. 254:232–246.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Thomas DW, Bosque C, Arends A. 1993. Development of thermoregulation and energetics of nestling oilbirds (Steatornis caripensis). Physiol. Zool. 66:322–348. Upchurch P. 1995. The evolutionary history of sauropod dinosaurs. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 349:365–390. Varricchio DJ, Jackson F, Borkowski JJ, Horner JR. 1997. Nest and egg clutches of the dinosaur Troodon formosus and the evolution of avian reproductive traits. Nature 385:247–250. Visser GH, Ricklefs RE. 1993. Development of temperature regulation in shorebirds. Physiol. Zool. 66:771–792. von Koenigswald W, Storch G, Richter G. 1988. Ursprüngliche “Insectenfresser,” extravagante Igel und Langfinger. Pp. 159–177 in Messel: ein Schaufenster in die Geschichte der Erde und des Leben, S Schaal, W Zeigler, eds. Frankfurt: Waldemar Kramer. Weishampel DB. 1981. Acoustic analysis of potential vocalization in lambeosaurine dinosaurs (Reptilia: Ornithischia). Paleobiology 7:252–261. Weishampel DB. 1981. The nasal cavity of lambeosaurine hadrosaurids (Reptilia: Ornithischia). J. Paleontol. 55:1046–1057. Weishampel DB. 1997. Dinosaurian cacophony. BioSci 47:150–159. Weishampel DB, Norman DB, Grigorescu D. 1993. Telmatosaurus transsylvaticus from the Late Cretaceous of Romania: the most basal hadrosaurid dinosaur. Paleontology 36:361–385. Welty JC, Baptista L. 1988. The Life of Birds. Fort Worth, TX: Saunders College. Westoby M, Leishman MR, Lord JM. 1995. On misinterpreting the “phylogenetic correction.” J. Ecol. 83:531–534. Wettstein O. 1931. Rhynchocephalia. Pp. 1–235 in Handbuch der Zoologie, W Kukenthal, T Krumbach, eds. Berlin: De Gruyter. Wettstein O. 1976. Circulation. Pp. 275–334 in Biology of the Reptilia, vol. 5, C Gans, WR Dawson, eds. New York: Academic Press. Witmer LM. 1995. Homology of facial structures in extant archosaurs (birds and crocodilians), with special reference to paranasal pneumaticity and nasal conchae. J. Morphol. 225:269–327. Witmer LM. 1997. The evolution of the antorbital cavity of archosaurs: a study in soft-tissue reconstruction in the fossil record with an analysis of the function of pneumaticity. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 17:1–73. Witmer LM. 1999. Nasal conchae and blood supply in some dinosaurs: physiological implications. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 19:85A. Xu X, Tang Z-L, Wang X-L. 1999. A therizinosauroid dinosaur with integumentary structures from China. Nature 399:350–354. Young C-C. 1947. On Lufengosaurus magnus (sp. nov.) and additional finds of Lufengosaurus heunei young. Palaeontol. Sin. 12:1–53.

OCR for page 237
Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere This page intially left blank