APPENDIX
RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS AMONG VARIOUS ANIMAL GROUPS



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Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere APPENDIX RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS AMONG VARIOUS ANIMAL GROUPS

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Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Respiratory Systems Among Various Animal Groups Taxon Medium Type Absorption surface Humans Air Pump lung Complex alveoli Birds Air Pump lung with added air sac Simple alveoli in lung, and internal surface of air sacs Lizards Air Pump lung Simple alveoli Crocodiles Air Pump lung Simple alveoli Saurischian dinosaurs Air Pump lung with added air sac ? Fish Water Counter current gills Gill surface Bivalve mollusks Water Medium pressure Pump gills Chambered cephalopods Water Complex gills, high pressure pump gills Gill surface Brachiopods Water Low pressure pump gills Lophophore surface, punctae (terebratulids) Scleractinian corals Water No gill epithelial adsorption Epithelium, internal mesentaries Echinoids Water External gill, adsorption, tube feet Gill surface Bryozoans Water Lophophore Epithelial absorption Sponges Water No gills, medium pressure pump Choanocyte cell surface Tunicates Water Internal gill, medium pressure pump Internal gill surface

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Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere Surface area/volume of resp. organ Blood flow across resp. organ Source of pump Chambers in heart Blood pigment High High Diaphragm breathing Four Hemoglobin High High Ribcage, pelvic Four Hemoglobin Low Low Diaphragm Three Hemoglobin Low Low Pelvic pump Three Hemoglobin ? ? Ribcage, pelvic Four ?   Low Rib ventilation Two     Low Cilia in siphon One None   High Adductor muscle contraction One Hemocyanin   Low Cilia None None   None None None None   Low Water vascular system       Low Cilia None None   None Cilia Flagellar beating None   Low Cilia    

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