7. Ibid., p. xxiii.


8. Thomas Edward Cliffe Leslie, “The Political Economy of Adam Smith,” The Fortnightly Review, November 1, 1870. Available online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/modeng/modengS.browse.html


9. “Code of Nature” was most unfortunately used in the title of a work by a French communist named Morelly. He had truly wacko ideas. I don’t mean to pick on communists—they’ve had a bad enough time in recent years—but this guy really was off the charts. For one thing, he insisted that everybody had to get married whether they wanted to or not. And you had to turn 30 years old before you would be allowed to pursue an academic profession if you so desired, provided you were judged worthy.


10. Henry Maine, Ancient Law, 1861. Available online at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/econ/maineaco.htm. Maine notes that “Jus Gentium was, in actual fact, the sum of the common ingredients in the customs of the old Italian tribes, for they were all the nations whom the Romans had the means of observing, and who sent successive swarms of immigrants to Roman soil. Whenever a particular usage was seen to be practiced by a large number of separate races in common it was set down as part of the Law common to all Nations, or Jus Gentium.”


11. Dugald Stewart, “Account of the Life and Writings of Adam Smith LL.D.,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1793. Available online at http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/smith/dugald.


12. Cliffe Leslie, “Political Economy,” pp. 2, 11.


13. Roger Smith, The Norton History of the Human Sciences, W.W. Norton, New York, 1997, p. 303.


14. Colin Camerer, interview in Pasadena, Calif., March 12, 2004.


15. Nava Ashraf, Colin F. Camerer, and George Loewenstein, “Adam Smith, Behavioral Economist,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19 (Summer 2005): 132.


16. Stephen Jay Gould, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2002, pp. 122–123.


17. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, The Modern Library, New York, 1998, p. 148.


18. Another interesting refutation of Paley comes from Stephen Wolfram, whose book A New Kind of Science generated an enormous media blitz in 2002. Wolfram makes the point that a Swiss watch—Paley’s example of complexity—is actually quite a simple, regular, predictable device. You need a designer, Wolfram said, not to produce complexity, but to ensure simplicity.A watch, after all, exhibits nothing like the complexity of life, Wolfram pointed out. Keeping time requires, above all else, absolutely regular motion to guarantee near-perfect predictability. Complexity introduces deviations from regular motion, rendering a clock worthless. And as Wolfram demonstrates throughout his book, nature—left to its own devices—produces complexity

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