20. E.J. Chesler, S.G. Wilson, W.R. Lariviere, S.L. Rodriguez-Zas, and J.S. Mogil, “Identification and Ranking of Genetic and Laboratory Environment Factors Influencing a Behavioral Trait, Thermal Nociception, via Computational Analysis of a Large Data Archive,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26 (2002): 907.


21. Colin Camerer, interview in Pasadena, March 12, 2004.



1. Isaac Asimov, Foundation and Empire, Ballantine Books, New York, 1983 (1952), p. 1.


2. Ibid., p. 112.


3. Philip Ball, “The Physical Modelling of Society: A Historical Perspective,” Physica A, 314 (2002): 1.


4. Ibid., p. 7.


5. Pierre Simon Laplace, A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, Dover, New York, 1996 (1814), p. 4.


6. Gauss was not, however, the first to devise the curve that bears his name. The French mathematician Abraham de Moivre (1667–1754) initially developed the idea in the 1730s.


7. See Frank H. Hankins, “Adolphe Quetelet as Statistician,” Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, 31 (1908): 33, 18.


8. Adolphe Quetelet, Sur L’Homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou essai de physique sociale. The philosopher Auguste Comte also coined the term “social physics” about the same time, and had his own ideas about developing a science of society. See Roger Smith, The Norton History of the Human Sciences, Norton, New York, 1997, Chapter 12.


9. Adolphe Quetelet, Preface to Treatise on Man (1842 English edition), p. 7. Available online at http://www.maps.jcu.edu.au/course/hist/stats/quet/quetpref.htm.


10. Ibid., p. 9.


11. Ibid., p. 17.


12. Ibid., p. 14.


13. Ibid., p. 12.


14. Stephen G. Brush, “Introduction,” in Stephen G. Brush, ed., Kinetic Theory, Vol. I, The Nature of Gases and Heat, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965, p. 8.


15. Henry Thomas Buckle, History of Civilization in England, quoted in Ball, “Physical Modelling of Society,” p. 10.


16. Ibid., Chapter 3, “Method Employed by Metaphysicians,” pp. 119–120. Available online at http://www.perceptions.couk.com/buckle1.html.


17. Ibid., p. 120. Note also that he allowed “experiments so delicate as to isolate the phenomena,” but said that could never be done with a single mind,

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