5. James Clerk Maxwell, “Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases,” Philosophical Magazine (1860). Reprinted in Brush, Kinetic Theory, p. 150.


6. An important point about statistical physics is that different microstates can correspond to indistinguishable macrostates. Various possible distributions of molecular speeds, for instance, can produce identical average velocities. That is one of the reasons why statistical mechanics is so successful. Even though it makes statistical predictions, in many cases the overwhelming number of possible microstates produce similar macrostates, so the prediction of that particular macrostate has a high probability of being accurate.


7. Katarzyna Sznajd-Weron, “Sznajd Model and Its Applications,” http:// arxiv.org/abs/physics/0503239, March 31, 2005.


8. Peter Dodds and Duncan Watts, “Unusual Behavior in a Generalized Model of Contagion,” Physical Review Letters, 92 (May 28, 2004).


9. Steven Strogatz, interview in Quincy, Mass., May 17, 2004.


10. Colin Camerer, Behavioral Game Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 2003, p. 465.


11. Damien Challet and Yi-Cheng Zhang, “Emergence of Cooperation and Organization in an Evolutionary Game,” Physica A, 246 (1997): 407–428.


12. Jenna Bednar and Scott Page, “Can Game(s) Theory Explain Culture? The Emergence of Cultural Behavior Within Multiple Games,” Santa Fe Institute Working Paper 04-12-039, December 20, 2004, p. 2.


13. Ibid.


14. Ibid.


15. Ibid., pp. 2–3.


16. Doyne Farmer, Eric Smith, and Martin Shubik, “Is Economics the Next Physical Science?” Physics Today, 58 (September 2005): 37.



1. David Meyer, interview in La Jolla, Calif., August 6, 2003.


2. You can find more on this explanation for the quantum penny game in Chiu Fan Lee and Neil F. Johnson, “Let the Quantum Games Begin,” Physics World, October 2002.


3. David A. Meyer, “Quantum Strategies,” Physical Review Letters, 82 (February 1, 1999): 1052–1055.


4. David Meyer, interview in La Jolla, Calif., August 6, 2003.


5. Lan Zhou and Le-Man Kuang, “Proposal for Optically Realizing a Quantum Game,” Physics Letters A, 315 (2003): 426–430.


6. This is a key point. You cannot use entanglement to send faster-than-light messages, because you need some other channel of communication to learn the measurement of the other particle.

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