Index

A

Academic performance, 2, 3, 24, 25, 36, 73, 93, 95, 110.

See also Learning

Acne and skin problems, 3, 26, 4041

Adjustment disorder, 3

Adolescent Sleep Smart Pacemaker Program, 221

Adolescent Sleepiness Scale, 9798

Adolescents.

See also Social and cultural pressures on teens

alertness, 1617

brain development, 11

caffeine intake, 4244

car crashes, 3034

cramming for exams, 6768, 108, 110, 127

homework routine, 125127, 128, 129

international similarities, 225230

motivation to sleep, 110116, 199

night owls, 18, 5960, 131, 225, 226

parasomnias, 52

physiological demands on, 2324

and Process C, 14, 1518, 49, 50

and Process S, 1416, 49, 50

sleep IQ quiz for, 61

sleep needs, 15, 21, 24, 27, 37, 4849, 56, 109, 131

sleep-wake cycle, 11, 12, 16, 1718, 2728

social lives, 78, 8384

TV watching, 8384, 199

Adults

jet lag, 82

RLS, 168

sleep needs, 4849, 56, 203

sleep-wake cycle, 1011

sleepiness assessment tools, 9899

Advocacy

changing school start times, 28, 147, 202203, 214216

education on sleep deprivation, 220222

Aggressive driving, 36

Alarm clocks, 123, 129, 137, 200, 201

Alcohol use or abuse, 2, 21, 32, 36, 40, 44, 168, 187, 204, 229

Alertness, 11, 14, 1617, 5657.

See also Process C

professional assessment tools, 9798

“All-nighters,” 6768



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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits Index A Academic performance, 2, 3, 24, 25, 36, 73, 93, 95, 110. See also Learning Acne and skin problems, 3, 26, 40–41 Adjustment disorder, 3 Adolescent Sleep Smart Pacemaker Program, 221 Adolescent Sleepiness Scale, 97–98 Adolescents. See also Social and cultural pressures on teens alertness, 16–17 brain development, 11 caffeine intake, 42–44 car crashes, 30–34 cramming for exams, 67–68, 108, 110, 127 homework routine, 125–127, 128, 129 international similarities, 225–230 motivation to sleep, 110–116, 199 night owls, 18, 59–60, 131, 225, 226 parasomnias, 52 physiological demands on, 23–24 and Process C, 14, 15–18, 49, 50 and Process S, 14–16, 49, 50 sleep IQ quiz for, 61 sleep needs, 15, 21, 24, 27, 37, 48–49, 56, 109, 131 sleep-wake cycle, 11, 12, 16, 17–18, 27–28 social lives, 78, 83–84 TV watching, 83–84, 199 Adults jet lag, 82 RLS, 168 sleep needs, 48–49, 56, 203 sleep-wake cycle, 10–11 sleepiness assessment tools, 98–99 Advocacy changing school start times, 28, 147, 202–203, 214–216 education on sleep deprivation, 220–222 Aggressive driving, 36 Alarm clocks, 123, 129, 137, 200, 201 Alcohol use or abuse, 2, 21, 32, 36, 40, 44, 168, 187, 204, 229 Alertness, 11, 14, 16–17, 56–57. See also Process C professional assessment tools, 97–98 “All-nighters,” 67–68

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits Allergies, 26, 160, 162 Alpha waves, 50 Alvarez, G. G., 196 American Academy of Pediatrics, 31, 36, 64, 233 American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 94, 187, 234 American Diabetes Association, 178 American Sleep Disorders Association, 154 Andrade, Miriam, 225 Anger/irritability, 3, 21, 35–37, 41, 44, 46, 95, 114, 136, 155, 187 Animals, sleep needs, 39, 49, 182–183 Anticonvulsants, 169, 173, 184 Antidepressants, 168, 173, 190 Antioxidant balance, 26, 181 Anxiety, 36, 187, 192, 226, 227 Armitage, Roseanne, 57, 191 Arthritis Foundation of New South Wales, 41 Association of Professional Sleep Societies, 169 Asthma, 26, 160 Attention deficit disorder, 94, 161, 185–197 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 147–148, 185–187 Australia, 225 Awake123, 200 Ayas, N. T., 196 B Balon, R., 191 Bats, 49 Bedtime and wake-up routines enabling bad behavior, 200–202 ground rules, 197–200 responsibility for, 200–202 successful strategies, 122–124 tips from teens to parents, 107–118 weekends, 147 Behavior, 2, 21, 24, 31, 187, 197, 226; see also Sleep-promoting strategies Better Sleep Council, 234 Bipolar disease, 143 Birds, 67 Bradley Hospital Sleep and Chronobiology Research Laboratory, 186 Brain chemistry and mood swings, 36 and sleep-wake cycle, 10–13 and suicidal tendencies, 190–191 Brain development, 11–13, 54, 64, 65–66 Brain function activity during sleep, 48, 50, 51, 53, 66–69, 70, 73 cerebral cortex, 66 energy expenditure and, 39 fMRI, 69, 70 fronto-temporal cortex, 66 light therapy and, 139 parietal lobe, 66, 69 Brazil, 225, 226 Brown Medical School, 186 C Caffeine, 39–40, 42–44, 87–89, 121, 146, 168, 204 Canada, 228 Cancer, 3, 181 Car crashes alcohol and, 32 danger signs, 32–33 drowsy driving laws, 30–31 “good” vs. “bad” kids, 32 international perspectives, 226 risk factors, 32 school start times and, 214 sleep debt and, 2, 31 Carskadon, Mary, 12, 31, 32, 82, 217 Case Western Reserve University, 120, 180 Cataplexy, 164, 165–166, 167, 184 Catching up on sleep, 19–21, 166 Cats, 49 Cell phones, 84–86, 119

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits Children obesity epidemic, 177 parasomnias, 52 sleep needs, 48–49 sleepiness assessment, 100, 101–102 Children in the Community study, 83 China, 226 Cholinergic transmission, 11–12 Chronic fatigue syndrome, 38–39 Chronotherapy, 144–146 Circadian rhythm, 18, 20–21. See also Internal clock; Process C Cognitive lapses, 58 Committee on Chemotherapeutics, 190 Communicating about sleep, 197 photo comparison, 95–96 tips from teens to parents, 107–118 Computers, 84. See also Internet Confusion, 36 Connecticut Thoracic Foundation, 213 Cortisol, 34, 178 CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) device, 162, 163–164 D Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) ADD mistaken for, 186 brain changes and, 12–13 catching up on sleep and, 19–21 and depression, 189 genetic predisposition, 58, 59 and headaches, 179 and immune response, 181 insomnia distinguished from, 169, 170 lifestyle accommodations, 59 napping and, 75 Process C and, 14 Process S and, 14–16 and seizures, 183–184 sports team travel and, 82 treatment, see Treatment of DSPS Dental appliances, 162–163 Depression screening, 104, 173 signs of, 188 sleep deprivation and, 2, 3, 21, 36, 38, 94, 147, 148, 155, 168, 187–190 and substance abuse, 187 treatment, 189 Dextroamphetamine derivatives, 167 Diabetes, 3, 35, 177, 178–179 Dialysis, 168 Diary/journal writing, 123–124, 129 Dieting, 121 Digestive problems, 30, 39–40 Dim light melatonin onset, 17, 149 Divided-Attention Test, 102–103 Dopamine, 11, 169 Down syndrome, 160 DR1 markers, 59 Dreams/dreaming, 51, 53, 74, 75, 144, 164 Drug abuse, 36, 44, 187 Drunk Driving Test, 33 Dysfunction critical point, 24 tests of, 33, 102–103 E Early, Chris, 167–168 Eating habits, 121–122, 178, 179. See also Caffeine Electroencephalograms, 53, 184 Emotional stability, 24. See also Mood Energy and brain function, 39 expenditure, 39 level, 36, 38, 46, 82, 87 restoration, 51 sleep disorders and, 161 Epilepsy, 169, 183–184 Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 98–99 Equipment operation, injuries related to, 33–34 Evans, Sandy, 217–220 Everson, Carol, 181–182

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits Eurodata TV Worldwide study, 229 Exercise, 38, 42, 44–45, 116, 125–126, 127–128, 129, 130–131, 146, 162, 171, 172, 178, 179, 204 Extracurricular activities, 80–82 F Fairfax County Council of PTAs, 218 Feng Shui, 118 Fenn, K. M., 69 Finland, 225 Food and Drug Administration, 143 France, 228 G Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA), 12, 169 Gangwisch, James, 35 Genetic factors, 50, 58–60, 164, 177, 186 George Washington University, 154 Ghrelin hormones, 34 Giannotti, Flavia, 226 Giedd, Jay, 11 Giraffes, 49 Glucose metabolism, 34, 35 Grossbart, Ted, 40–41 Growth, 40 Growth hormone, 40, 51 Guilleminault, Christian, 32 H Hair loss, 26 Harvard Medical School, 40–41 Headaches caffeine withdrawal and, 44 cause of, 180 cluster, 180 evaluating, 103–104 melatonin and, 180 migraines, 26–30, 180 and school absenteeism, 181 sleep disorders and, 39, 95, 147–148, 155, 165, 179 tension, 180 Heartburn, 173 Henry Ford Health Sciences Center, 187 Hippocampus, 64 Hobson, J. Allan, 53 Homeostatic sleep system. See Process S Homework routine, 125–127, 128, 129 Human leukocyte antigens, 59 Hypersomnia, 229 Hypertension, 3, 177 Hyperthyroidism, 176 Hypnogogic hallucinations, 50, 164 Hypocretin, 11, 164–165, 166–167 Hypothalamus, 12, 14, 15–16, 165 Hypothalamus dysfunction syndrome, 182 Hypothyroidism, 176 I IGF-I, 40 Immune response activity during sleep, 51 depression of, 25–26, 57 and diabetes, 178 impaired, 181–183 and narcolepsy, 164 Table-Over-Water sleep deprivation model, 182–183 upregulation, 182 Infants REM sleep deprivation, 54 sleep needs, 48–49 Infections, susceptibility to, 21, 24, 25–26, 39, 63, 181 Injection snoreplasty, 163 Injury recovery rate, 41 risk of, 21, 30–34 Insomnia causes, 169–170 chronic psycho-physiological, 170 and depression, 188, 190 diagnosing, 173 ethnocultural differences, 229

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits multiple wake-ups, 173 prevalence, 169, 229 sleep-onset, 169–170, 173 and substance abuse, 187 and suicide, 190–191 treatment, 170–172, 173 Instant Messaging, 85, 89, 119, 120 Insulin resistance, 179 Interactive Hazard Perception Test, 33 Internal clock, 9–10, 13, 15, 17–18, 32, 82. See also Process C International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study, 228 International Society for Affective Disorders, 190 Internet gaming and Instant Messaging, 85, 89, 119, 120 Web sites resources for patients, 33, 73, 74 Interpersonal relationships, 44–45 Iron levels, 167–168 Israel, 225, 226–227, 228 Italy, 225, 226 J Japan, 225, 227, 228, 229 Johns Hopkins University, 167 K Keats, John, 47 Kidney failure, 168 Korea, 226 L Language learning, 73 Laser-assisted uvolopalatectomy, 163 le Bourgeois, M. K., 186 Learning. See also Sleep-learning link adaptive, 76 process, 64–66 Lehigh University, 191 Leptins, 34, 177 Lofgren, Zoe, 216 Longevity, 26, 57, 196 Light exposure boxes, visors, and books, 28–29, 39, 125, 138–142, 148–149, 189, 199, 231–232 and brain cues, 124–125, 138, 139, 148–149 Dawn Simulator, 142 length of, 138–139 lux vs. lumens, 138 and melatonin production, 139 mood disorders and, 139, 143, 189, 190 outdoor jobs and, 141 side effects and safety issues, 140, 142–143 M Maggie’s Law, 30–31 Mania, 143 Martin, Paul, 41 McDonnell, Maggie, 30 Measuring sleepiness, 11 adolescents, 97–98, 99–102, 136 adults, 98–99, 101 children, 100, 101–102 daytime napping test, 93, 136, 161, 162 depression screening, 104 headache evaluation, 103–104 memory games and puzzles, 73–74, 104–105 overnight sleep study in sleep lab, 154, 161, 166 photo comparison, 95–96 professional assessment tools, 96–102 psychomotor response impairments, 102–103 sleep logs, 11, 13, 39, 93, 131–132, 133, 149 symptoms, 93–96 Mednick, S. C., 69 Melatonin and headaches, 180 light therapy and, 139, 144

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits measuring, 13 and sleep-wake cycle, 3, 12–13, 17, 49, 50 treatment with, 39, 143–146, 149 Memory, 37, 63, 64. See also Sleep-learning link categories and types, 65 consolidation, 67, 72 refining, 69 restoration, 69, 72 sleep disorders and, 155 tests, 73–74, 104–105 Menna-Barreto, L., 225 Metabolic syndrome, 179 Methylphenidate derivatives, 167 Microarousals, 167 Microsleeps, 58, 184 Migraines, 3, 26–30, 180 symptoms, 103–104 Modafinil, 166–167 Mood brain chemistry and, 36 caffeine effects, 42, 88 light therapy and, 139 sleep deprivation and, 21, 35–37, 41, 44, 46, 93, 94, 95, 149, 161 social and cultural pressures and, 87, 88 swings, 35–37 Morning larks, 50 Music and MP3 players, 84–85, 120, 149, 204 MyCalls, 200 N Napping, 42, 69, 72, 75, 127, 129–130, 136, 149, 165, 166 Narcolepsy cause, 164–165 diagnosing, 166, 184 incidence, 164 major study, 153 risk factors, 165, 166 signs and symptoms, 164, 165–166, 184 treatment, 166–167 National Center on Effective Secondary Schools, 217 National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, 234 National College Health Assessment program, 191 National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research, 25–26 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 179, 234 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 30, 102, 234 National Institute of Child Health and Development, 221 National Institute on Media and the Family, 84 National Institutes of Health, 11, 26, 190, 221 National Parent Teacher Association, 234 National School Boards Foundation, 234 National Sleep Awareness Week, 222 National Sleep Foundation, 11, 20, 32, 33, 41, 44, 47, 61, 75, 76, 131, 168, 187, 190, 197, 211, 213–214, 215, 235 Natural selection, 57 Neurodegenerative diseases, 168 Neuronal pruning, 11 Neurotransmitters, 11, 36 New Jersey, Maggie’s Law, 30–31 Nicotine, 2, 44, 226, 227, 229 Night owls, 18, 50, 58, 59–60, 131, 226 Night terrors, 52 Nightmares, 190 Nighttime urination, 155 Norepinephrine, 11 North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 35 O Obesity/overweight, 3, 21, 34–35, 160, 162, 177–178 Ohida, T., 228 One-Leg Stand Test, 102–103

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits Opioids, 169 Overeating, 26 P Pacemaker cells, 155–156 Pain, 41 Panic attacks, 190 Parasomnias, 52 Parents. See also Adults alcohol consumption, 204 caffeine consumption, 204 changing school start times, 202–203, 216–220 enabling bad habits, 200–202 family time, 205–206 following through on agreements, 206–207 ground rules for kids, 197–199 night-owl behavior, 203 obesity, 177 overprogramming, 205 patient and caring attitude, 207 pressure on teens from, 78, 80, 87, 89, 229 prioritizing sleep, 196–197 as role models, 4, 46, 60, 89, 203–207 sleep logs, 207 supportive role, 196 talking to teens, 195–196, 197, 198, 202 tips from teens to, 107–118 TV watching, 203–204 winding down before bed, 204 working in the bedroom, 204–205 Parkinson’s disease, 168, 169 Payne, Phyllis, 217–220 Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, 100, 101–102 Pew Internet & American Life Project, 85 Photosensitivity reactions, 143 Pineal gland, 12, 143 Potassium, 168–169 Process C, 14, 15–18, 49, 50, 148. See also Internal clock Process S, 14–16, 49, 50, 148 Profile of Mood States, 36 Psychomotor response, 32–33 Puberty and brain development, 11 and migraines, 26 and sleep-wake cycle, 12, 15, 18 Q Quality of sleep, 20, 42, 60, 123, 180, 186 Quinine water, 168 R Reaction Test Challenge, 33 REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, 11–12, 26 arousal from, 199 brain activity, 53, 184 brain chemistry and, 190 dreams, 75 and learning, 37, 67, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 126 and pain sensitivity, 41 paralysis, 53–54, 164 REM Sleep Behavioral Disorder, 54 Resources for patients light therapy products, 231–232 memory games and puzzles, 104, 232–233 sleep-related organizations, 233–235 sleep specialists, 94 Web sites, 33, 73, 74 Restless legs syndrome, 167–169, 173 Ritalin, 147 Roberts, R. E., 229 Roosevelt, Eleanor, 64 Russia, 228 S Sadeh, Avi, 226–227 School absenteeism, 20, 38, 44–45, 95, 181 advanced placement classes, 79

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits changing, 147 class schedule changes, 28 School start times after-school daycare concerns, 216 Arlington, Virginia, 210 benefits of later time, 209–210, 213–214 changing, 28, 147, 202–203, 214–216 community engagement, 215 districts that have changed, 210, 212–214 Fairfax County, Virginia, 216–220 Fayette County, Kentucky, 214 financial pressures and, 78, 211–212 goal setting, 215–216 and juvenile crime, 211 Minneapolis Edina school district, 210, 214 Montgomery County, Maryland, 211 resistance to change, 219 “school engagement” issue, 217 and sleep deprivation, 18, 19, 27, 77–78, 147, 211–212 S.L.E.E.P. parent group’s story, 216–220, 235 and sports and extracurricular activities, 213, 214, 216 starting a parent group, 220 state and national efforts at change, 216 and traffic accidents, 214 transportation logistics, 218–219 Wilton, Connecticut, 212–214 Scripps Clinic, 180 Seasonal affective disorder, 139 Seizure disorders, 183–184 Serotonin, 11, 190–191 Sexual development, 13 Sexual Maturity Ratings, 13 Shakespeare, William, 47 “Siesta” time, 14, 15 Singareddy, R. K., 191 Skin problems. See Acne and skin problems. S.L.E.E.P., 216–220, 235 Sleep arousal threshold, 52 attacks, 58, 164, 184 brain activity during, 48, 50, 51, 53, 66–69, 70, 73 debt, 14, 19–21, 25–26, 166 defined, 47–48 dreaming, 51, 53, 74, 75 hypnogogic hallucinations, 50 IQ quiz for teens, 61 K complexes, 51 logs, 11, 13, 39, 131–132, 133, 149, 170, 207 motivation strategies, 110–116 needs, 15, 21, 24, 27, 37, 48–49, 55, 56, 60, 109, 131, 203 quality, 20, 42, 60, 123, 180, 186 restorative functions, 48, 51, 54, 55, 63, 154 slow wave, 51, 52, 67, 72, 73, 75, 129 spindles, 51 stages, 40, 49–53 talking, 52 walking, 52 Sleep apnea, 35, 148 arousal rate, 159 case study, 161–164 cause, 155–159 and diabetes, 179 diagnosing, 159, 161–162, 173 length and number of events, 159–160 prevalence, 155 risk factors, 160, 161, 162 signs and symptoms, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160–161 treatment, 162–164 Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome, 159, 163 Sleep deprivation. See also Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome and acne and skin problems, 26, 40–41 and ADD, 94, 185–187

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits alcohol use and, 21, 32, 36, 40, 44 and allergies and asthma, 26 and behavior, 187, 226 and caffeine, 39–40, 42–44 catching up on sleep, 19–21 community-wide problem, 217–218 diseases with common symptoms, 175–192 and driving, 30–34, 226 education initiatives, 214–215, 220–222 and immune response, 25–26, 57 and injury risk, 2, 30–34 international perspectives, 225–230 and learning, 64, 67, 75, 76 lethal effects, 26 longevity, 26, 57 and mood, 21, 35–37, 41, 44, 46, 93, 94, 95, 226 and obesity, 2, 177 social and cultural pressures and, 77–89 state instability, 58 symptoms, 93–96 Sleep disorders. See also individual disorders diagnosis and treatment, 153, 154 knowledge of, 153–154 most common in teens, 154–155 obesity/overweight and, 35, 160 prevalence, 153 symptoms, 154 Sleep Heart Health Study, 179 Sleep in America polls, 32, 42, 44, 197 Sleep-learning link, 21, 31 “all-nighters” and, 67–68, 75, 108, 110, 127 auditory learning, 72–73 behavioral learning, 74 brain imaging, 69, 70 creativity, 74–75 finger-tapping test, 68 information processing, 53, 63–64 memory and, 37, 54 motor-based learning, 71–72 problem solving, 74–75 testing, 68, 73–74, 104–105 visual learning, 73–74 when learning occurs, 66–69, 70, 126 Sleep-promoting strategies. See also Treatment of DSPS alarm clock settings, 123, 129 bedroom environment, 118–119, 124–125, 132, 171, 204–205 bedtime and wake-up routines, 122–124, 197–200 calming activities, 115, 120–121, 123–124, 149, 204, 205–206, 228 cooperative approach, 117–118, 197 day planner/PalmPilot, 126, 128 diary/journal writing, 123–124, 129, 149, 171 eating habits, 121–122, 126, 127, 132, 146 exercise/physical activity, 125–126, 127–128, 129, 136, 146, 148, 171, 172, 204, 206 family time and, 205–206 guided imagery, 171–172 homework routine, 125–127, 128, 129, 132 incentives and rewards, 123, 127, 199 international perspectives, 228 light exposure and brain cues, 124–125 music, 120, 127, 132, 149, 204 napping, 127, 129–130 phone and IM limits, 119, 128, 146, 149 recognizing poor sleep habits, 131–132 schedule adjustments, 131–132, 145, 146 stress reducers, 126, 127–129, 170–173 talking about difficult issues, 128 temperature, 119

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits TV limits, 119–120, 124, 126–127, 132, 199 video games and, 120 Sleep-wake cycle. See also Internal clock adolescent, 3, 11, 12, 16, 17–18, 27–28, 111–112 adult, 10–11 brain chemistry and, 3, 10–12 changing, 29–30 child, 10–11, 16, 17 duration, 54–55 evolution and, 13, 55–58 genetic factors, 50, 58–60 and physiological processes, 16 puberty and, 12 schedule for teens, 108–109, 111–112 stages, 40, 49–55; see also REM sleep Sleepiness perception as laziness, 154, 165 tests, see Measuring sleepiness Sleeping medications, 137, 143–144, 173 “Sleeping on a decision,” 68–69 Slow wave sleep, 51, 52, 67, 72, 73, 75, 129, 190, 199 Smoking. See Nicotine Snoring, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161 Social and cultural pressures on teens. See also Sports and caffeine consumption, 87 college-related, 78–81, 88, 189, 191 and depression, 189 early start times, 18, 19, 27, 28, 77–78 extracurricular activities, 80–82 international differences, 229–230 job-related, 81 and mood, 87, 88 multitasking and, 87 from parents, 78, 80, 87 and priority of sleep, 86–87 and privacy and personal time, 83–84, 116 status in staying up late, 86 strategies for lowering, 80, 115 technology and, 82, 83–86, 87 Society for Adolescent Medicine, 235 Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, 140 Somatotropin, 40 Sports benefits of, 81–82 extended travel by teams, 82 injuries, 34, 38 performance, 21, 34, 48, 72, 109–110 pressures on teens, 81–82 school start times and, 213 SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), 168 Stanford Sleepiness Scale, 99, 101 Stanford University School of Medicine, 168 Stedman, Nancy, 24 Stickgold, Robert, 72 Stimulant medications, 166, 186 Stomach ulcers, 39 Stress. See also Social and cultural pressures on teens and alcohol and drug abuse, 44 coping ability, 46 and cortisol, 34, 178 and digestive problems, 40 exercise and, 38, 130–131 international perspective, 226–227, 229 and obesity, 34, 177–178 reduction strategies, 38, 127–129, 130–131, 170–173, 227 sleep deprivation and, 24, 36, 39, 40, 48, 49, 87, 226–227, 229 Suicidal tendencies, 3, 36, 190–192 Sullivan, Kevin, 212 Suprachiasmatic nucleus, 14, 15–16, 138, 148 Surgical interventions, 163

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Snooze…Or Lose!: 10 “No-War” Ways to Improve Your Teen’s Sleep Habits T T3 (triiodothyronine), 175 T4 (thyroxine), 175 Table-Over-Water sleep deprivation model, 182–183 Tanner Stages (Tanner Scale), 13 Television watching, 83–84, 87, 119–120, 127, 170, 177, 203–204, 229 Tests of impairment. See Dysfunction; Measuring sleepiness Theta waves, 50, 51 Thyroid disease, 175–177 Time management issues, 10 Tissue growth and repair, 41, 51 Tonsillectomy, 162 Treatment of DSPS behavioral changes, 29–30, 137, 145, 146–147, 148; see also Sleep-promoting strategies case history, 147–149 chronotherapy, 137, 144–146, 147 compliance with, 146–147, 199, 202, 206–207 education, 39, 135–136, 146, 148 family support and participation, 59–60, 145, 205–206 length of, 28, 143, 145 light therapy, 28–29, 39, 136, 137–143, 144, 146, 147, 148–149, 189, 206 melatonin supplements, 39, 136, 143–144, 145–146, 147, 149, 206 in Russia, 228 sleeping pills and, 137 U UNICEF, 64 University of British Columbia, 196 University of Chicago Medical School, 34 University of Copenhagen, 179, 180 University of Lubeck, 74–75 University of Maryland, 229 University of Michigan, 191 Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome, 159, 163 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 228 U.S. Department of Justice, 211 U.S. Department of Labor, 81 V Vancouver General Hospital, 196 Video games, 85, 89, 119, 120 Visual discrimination tasks, 69 Visual reaction time, 31 W Wake-up services, 200 Wakefulness, 11–12 body jerk, 50 defined, 47 destabilization, 58 drugs promoting, 166–167 sustained, 57 Wakeupland, 200 Wales, 228 Walk-and-Turn Test, 102–103 Web site resources, 33, 73, 74 Weight gain, 3, 34–35, 38, 176, 177 Weight loss, 26, 182 Wilton Education Foundation, 213 Wilton League of Women Voters, 212 Wolfson, Amy, 226 World Health Organization, 229

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