REFERENCES

General References

Blackburn, T. M., and K. J. Gaston. 2003. Macroecology: Concepts and Consequences. (Blackwell, Oxford).

Brown, J. H. 1995. Macroecology (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL).

Calder, W. A., III. 1996. Size, Function and Life History (Dover, Mineola, NY).

Kingsland, S. 1995. Modeling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Ecology, 2nd edition (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL).

Peters, R. H. 1983. The Ecological Implications of Body Size (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

Rosenzweig, M. L. 1995. Species Diversity in Space and Time (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1984. Scaling: Why Is Animal Size so Important? (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

Thompson, D. W. 1961. On Growth and Form. Abridged edition, edited by J. T. Bonner, foreword by S. J. Gould (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).

1
Prologue: “I Have Taken to Mathematics”

Fox Keller, E. 2002. Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA).

Gould, S. J. 1971. D’Arcy Thompson and the science of form. New Literary History 2:229–258.



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In the Beat of a Heart: Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature REFERENCES General References Blackburn, T. M., and K. J. Gaston. 2003. Macroecology: Concepts and Consequences. (Blackwell, Oxford). Brown, J. H. 1995. Macroecology (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL). Calder, W. A., III. 1996. Size, Function and Life History (Dover, Mineola, NY). Kingsland, S. 1995. Modeling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Ecology, 2nd edition (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL). Peters, R. H. 1983. The Ecological Implications of Body Size (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). Rosenzweig, M. L. 1995. Species Diversity in Space and Time (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1984. Scaling: Why Is Animal Size so Important? (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). Thompson, D. W. 1961. On Growth and Form. Abridged edition, edited by J. T. Bonner, foreword by S. J. Gould (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). 1 Prologue: “I Have Taken to Mathematics” Fox Keller, E. 2002. Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA). Gould, S. J. 1971. D’Arcy Thompson and the science of form. New Literary History 2:229–258.

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In the Beat of a Heart: Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature Thompson, D. W. 1940. Science and the Classics (Oxford University Press, Oxford). Thompson, D. W. 1942. On Growth and Form, 2nd edition (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). Thompson, R. D. 1958. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, the Scholar-Naturalist. With an afterword by Peter Medawar (Oxford University Press, Oxford). 2 The Slow Fire Brody, S. 1945. Bioenergetics and Growth (Rheinhold, New York, NY). DuBois, E. F. 1936. Basal Metabolism in Health and Disease, 3rd edition (Baillière, Tindall and Cox, London). Ferguson, S. H., and S. Larivière. 2004. Are long penis bones an adaptation to high latitude snowy environments? Oikos 105:255–267. Garrow, J. S., W. P. T. James, and A. Ralph. 1999. Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 10th edition (Churchill Livingstone, London). Haldane, J. B. S. 1985. On Being the Right Size and Other Essays (Oxford University Press, Oxford). McNab, B. K. 1992. Energy expenditure: A short history. Pp. 1–15 in Mammalian Energetics, edited by T. E. Tomasi and T. H. Horton. (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY). Meiri, S., and T. Dayan. 2003. On the validity of Bergmann’s rule. Journal of Biogeography 30:331–351. Rothschuh, K. E. 1975. Rubner, Max. Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by C. C. Gillespie, vol. X1, pp. 585–586 (Scribner’s, New York, NY). Rubner, M. 1982. The Laws of Energy Consumption in Nutrition. Translated by A. Markoff and A. Sandri-White, edited by Robert J. T. Joy, with a biography of Max Rubner by William H. Chambers (Academic, London). 3 Moving the Line Benedict, F. G. 1938. Vital Energetics: A Study in Comparative Basal Metabolism (Carnegie Institute, Washington, DC). Clark, R. W. 1960. Sir Julian Huxley (Phoenix House, London). Gibson, S., and A. Numa. 2003. The importance of metabolic rate and the folly of body surface area calculations. Anaesthesia 58:50–83. Huxley, J. 1972. Memories (Penguin, London). Huxley, J. 1972. Problems of Relative Growth (Dover, New York, NY). Kleiber, M. 1932. Body size and metabolism. Hilgardia 6:315–353. Kleiber, M. 1961. The Fire of Life: An Introduction to Animal Energetics (Wiley, New York, NY).

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In the Beat of a Heart: Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature 4 Searching for Similarity The best publications to start reading about the hypotheses advanced to explain the relationship between body mass and metabolic rate up to the mid-1980s are Peters’s The Ecological Implications of Body Size, and Schmidt-Nielsen’s Scaling. Farley, C. T. 1999. Thomas A. McMahon (1943–99). Nature 398:566. Heusner, A. A. 1991. Size and power in mammals. Journal of Experimental Biology 160:25–54. McMahon, T. 1973. Size and shape in biology. Science 179:1201–1204. Plaut, K., et al. 2003. Effects of hypergravity on mammary metabolic function: Gravity acts as a continuum. Journal of Applied Physiology 95:2350–2354. Wang, Z., et al. 2001. The reconstruction of Kleiber’s law at the organ-tissue level. Journal of Nutrition 131:2967–2970. West, L. J., C. M. Pierce, and W. D. Thomas. 1963. Lysergic acid diethylamide: Its effects on a male Asiatic elephant. Science 138:1100–1103. 5 Networking Banavar, J. R., et al. 2002. Supply-demand balance and metabolic scaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:10506–10509. Calder, W. A. Diversity and convergence: Scaling for conservation. Pp. 297–324 in Scaling in Biology, edited by J. H. Brown and G. B. West. (Oxford University Press, Oxford). Gillooly, J. F. 2001. Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rate. Science 293:2248–2251. Lotka, A. J. 1956. Elements of Mathematical Biology (Dover, New York, NY). West, B. J., and A. L. Goldberger. 1987. Physiology in fractal dimensions. American Scientist 75:354–365. West, G. B., and J. H. Brown. 2004. Life’s universal scaling laws. Physics Today 57:36–42. West, G. B., et al. 1997. A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science 276:122–126. West, G. B., et al. 2000. The origin of universal scaling laws in biology. Pp. 87–112 in Scaling in Biology, edited by J. H. Brown and G. B. West. (Oxford University Press, Oxford). Whitfield, J. 2001. All creatures great and small. Nature 413:342–344. 6 The Pace of Life Austad, S. N. 1997. Why We Age: What Science Is Discovering About the Body’s Journey Through Life (Wiley, New York, NY). Bertalanffy, L. v. 1933. Modern Theories of Development: An Introduction to Theoretical Biology. Translated and adapted by J. H. Woodger (Oxford University Press, Oxford).

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In the Beat of a Heart: Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature Bertalanffy, L. v. 1952. Problems of Life: An Evaluation of Modern Biological Thought (Watts, London). Brown, J., and G. West. 2004. One rate to rule them all. New Scientist (May 1) 38–41. Gillooly, J. F., et al. 2001. Effects of size and temperature on developmental time. Nature 417:70–73. Guiot, C., et al. 2003. Does tumor growth follow a “universal law”? Journal of Theoretical Biology 225:147–151. McNab, B. K. 2003. Ecology shapes bird bioenergetics. Nature 426:620–621. Moses, M. E., and J. H. Brown. 2003. Allometry of human fertility and energy use. Ecology Letters 6:295–300. Nemoto, S., and T. Finkel. 2004. Ageing and the mystery at Arles. Nature 429:149–152. Pearl, R. 1928. The Rate of Living, Being an Account of Some Experimental Studies on the Biology of Life Duration (Knopf, New York, NY). Speakman, J. R., et al. 2004. Uncoupled and surviving: Individual mice with high metabolism have greater mitochondrial uncoupling and live longer. Aging Cell 3:87–95. Sterner, R. W., and J. J. Elser. 2002. Ecological Stoichiometry: The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ). West, G. B., et al. 2001. A general model for ontogenetic growth. Nature 413:628–631. Whitfield, J. 2004. Ecology’s big, hot idea. PLoS Biology 2:2023–2027. 7 Seeing the Forest for the Trees Baldocchi, D., et al. 2001. FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82:2415–2434. Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273–2276. Damuth, J. 1987. Interspecific allometry of population density in mammals and other animals: The independence of body mass and population energy use. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 31:193–246. Enquist, B. J., and K. Niklas. 2001. Invariant scaling relations across tree-dominated communities. Nature 410:655–660. Enquist, B. J., et al. 2003. Scaling metabolism from organisms to ecosystems. Nature 423:639–642. Hutchings, M. 1983. Ecology’s law in search of a theory. New Scientist (June 16)765–767. Jetz, W., et al. 2004. The scaling of animal space use. Science 306:266–268. Niklas, K. 1994. Plant Allometry (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL). Niklas, K. 2004. Plant allometry: Is there a grand unifying theory? Biological Reviews 79:871–889. Savage, V. M., et al. 2004. Effects of body size and temperature on population growth. American Naturalist 163:429–441.

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In the Beat of a Heart: Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature 8 The Cult of Santa Rosalia Chase, J. M., and M. A. Leibold. 2003. Ecological Niches: Linking Classical and Contemporary Approaches (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL). Colinvaux, P. C. 1980. Why Big Fierce Animals Are Rare (Penguin, London). Diamond, J. 1975. The assembly of species communities. Pp. 342–444 in Ecology and Evolution of Communities, edited by M. L. Cody and J. M. Diamond. (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA). Horn, H. S., and R. M. May. 1977. Limits to similarity among coexisting competitors. Nature 270:660–661. Hubbell, S. P. 2001. The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ). Hutchinson, G. E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia, or why are there so many kinds of animals? American Naturalist 93:145–159. Lewin, R. 1983. Santa Rosalia was a goat. Science 221:636–639. Lindeman, R. L. 1942. The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399–418. MacArthur, R. 1968. The theory of the niche. Pp. 159–176 in Population Biology and Evolution, edited by R. C. Lewontin. (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY). McCann, K. S. 2000. The diversity-stability debate. Nature 405:228–233. Ritchie, M. E., and H. Olff. 2000. Spatial scaling laws yield a synthetic theory of biodiversity. Nature 400:557–560. Silvertown, J. 2005. Demons in Eden: The Paradox of Plant Diversity (Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL). Simberloff, D., and W. Boecklen. 1981. Santa Rosalia reconsidered: Size ratios and competition. Evolution 35:1206–1228. Slobodkin, L. B., and N. G. Slack. 1999. George Evelyn Hutchinson: 20th Century ecologist. Endeavour 23:24–30. Tilman, D. 2000. Causes, consequences and ethics of biodiversity. Nature 405:208–211. Whitfield, J. 2002. Neutrality versus the niche. Nature 417:480–481. Wilson, E. O. 1995. Naturalist (Penguin, London). 9 Humboldt’s Gifts Rosenzweig’s Species Diversity in Space and Time is a good place to start reading about the latitudinal gradient in diversity. Allen, A. P., et al. 2002. Global biodiversity, biochemical kinetics, and the energetic-equivalence rule. Science 297:1545–1548. Brown, J. H. 1988. Species diversity. Pp. 57–89 in Analytical Biogeography: An Integrated Approach to the Study of Animal and Plant Distributions, edited by A. A. Myers and P. S. Giller. (Chapman & Hall, London). Colwell, R. K., et al. 2004. The mid-domain effect and species richness patterns: What have we learned so far? American Naturalist 163:E1–E23. Emerson, B. C., and N. Kolm. 2005. Species diversity can drive speciation. Nature 434:1015–1017.

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In the Beat of a Heart: Life, Energy, and the Unity of Nature Gendron, V. 1961. The Dragon Tree. A Life of Alexander, Baron von Humboldt (Longmans, Green, New York, NY). Humboldt, A. v. 1849. Aspects of Nature in Different Lands and Different Climates (Longman, London). Humboldt, A. v. 1995. Personal Narrative of a Journey to the Equinoctal Regions of the New Continent (Penguin, London). Raby, P. 2001. Alfred Russel Wallace (Chatto & Windus, London). Wallace, A. R. 1969. Natural Selection and Tropical Nature. Essays on Descriptive and Theoretical Biology (Gregg International, Farnborough, England). Wallace, A. R. 1980. My Life (Chapman & Hall, London). Willdenow, C. L. 1805. The Principles of Botany, and of Vegetable Physiology. Translated from German (Edinburgh, 1805). Willig, M. R., et al. 2003. Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: Pattern, process, scale, and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34:273–309. 10 A Newton of the Grass Blade? Ginzburg, L., and M. Colyvan. 2004. Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow (Oxford University Press, Oxford). Gittleman, J. L., and A. Purvis. 1998. Body size and species-richness in carnivores and primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 265:113–119. Kant, I. 1987. Critique of Judgement (Hackett, Indianapolis, IN). Lawton, J. H. 1999. Are there general laws in ecology? Oikos 84:179–192. May, R. M. 1999. Unanswered questions in ecology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 354:1951–1959. Murray, B. G. 2001. Are ecological and evolutionary theories scientific? Biological Reviews 76:255–289. Nee, S. 2004. More than meets the eye. Nature 429:804–805. Simberloff, D. 2004. Community ecology: Is it time to move on? American Naturalist 163:787–799. Slobodkin, L. B. 2001. The good, the bad and the reified. Evolutionary Ecology Research 3:1–13. Thomas, C. D., et al. 2004. Extinction and climate change. Nature 427:145–148. Whitfield, J. 2005. Biogeography: Is everything everywhere? Science 310:960–961.