the vessel that cannot carry cargo, such as the engine room. This is often used as the basis for assessing fees on the vessel.

OBO. Literally, ore-bulk-oil, meaning a combination carrier, a bulk carrier that can carry various types of cargo. The Derbyshire is an example.

pitchpole. When a vessel flips end over end, usually because of sailing too fast down the face of a high, steep wave, the bow becomes buried in the trough and the breaking wave carries the stern over.

Plimsoll marks. Marks painted on the side of a vessel that indicate how deeply it can be submerged under various sea conditions.

rig. On a sailboat, the spars (masts), sails, and standing rigging.

rode. A line connecting an anchor to a vessel; it can be rope or chain.

Ro-Ro carrier. Ro-Ro stands for “roll on–roll off” and signifies a vessel that carries cargo that is driven on and off the vessel.

run-up. Referring to a tsunami, the maximum elevation reached by the wave on land.

scantlings. A set of standard dimensions for ship design.

set. The direction toward which a current is flowing.

significant wave height. The average height of the highest one-third of a group of waves.

soliton. A solitary wave. Solitons can propagate on the surface or below.

SOS. See Mayday.

TEU: Twenty-foot equivalent unit. Refers to the original standard size of containers used on container ships. Today, 40-foot containers are common; one of these would equal 2 TEUs.

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