Endnotes

INTRODUCTION

  

1 Bascom (1980), 153, points out that 9 percent of all ships ever built in the 6,000 years of ocean navigation were wooden sailing ships, with steel, engine-driven vessels being a development of the last century. He estimates that 3,000 vessels were wrecked and 1,000 vessels foundered per year during the 1700s and 1800s—a fantastic number.

  

2 Mayday is the international radiotelephone distress signal. See Appendix C for the definition of this and other specialized terms. It is equivalent to SOS transmitted by Morse code.

  

3 At the publisher’s insistence, I used the British/American system of units in this book, rather than the universally accepted SI units. A table of conversion factors is found in Appendix B.

  

4 “Lloyd’s List” has been published continuously since the early 1700s when marine insurance underwriters gathered in Lloyd’s coffeehouse in London. It describes ship movements from various ports around the world and also lists ship casualties and losses.

  

5 Bascom (1980), 153, 158.

  

6 J. C. Chapman and R. Adams (1984), “Structural Design of Mono Hull Ships,” 57, in Douglas Faulkner, et al., eds. (1984), The Role of Design, Inspection, and Redundancy in Marine Structural Reliability, Proceedings of an International Symposium, November 14-16, 1983, Committee on Marine Structures, National Research Council, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

  

7 The information may be found on www.cargolaw.com, the web site of Los



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Extreme Waves Endnotes INTRODUCTION    1 Bascom (1980), 153, points out that 9 percent of all ships ever built in the 6,000 years of ocean navigation were wooden sailing ships, with steel, engine-driven vessels being a development of the last century. He estimates that 3,000 vessels were wrecked and 1,000 vessels foundered per year during the 1700s and 1800s—a fantastic number.    2 Mayday is the international radiotelephone distress signal. See Appendix C for the definition of this and other specialized terms. It is equivalent to SOS transmitted by Morse code.    3 At the publisher’s insistence, I used the British/American system of units in this book, rather than the universally accepted SI units. A table of conversion factors is found in Appendix B.    4 “Lloyd’s List” has been published continuously since the early 1700s when marine insurance underwriters gathered in Lloyd’s coffeehouse in London. It describes ship movements from various ports around the world and also lists ship casualties and losses.    5 Bascom (1980), 153, 158.    6 J. C. Chapman and R. Adams (1984), “Structural Design of Mono Hull Ships,” 57, in Douglas Faulkner, et al., eds. (1984), The Role of Design, Inspection, and Redundancy in Marine Structural Reliability, Proceedings of an International Symposium, November 14-16, 1983, Committee on Marine Structures, National Research Council, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.    7 The information may be found on www.cargolaw.com, the web site of Los

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Extreme Waves    Angeles-based Countryman and McDaniel, a law office specializing in international trade and maritime transport.    8 Richard Monden and Dieter Stockman (2004), “ISL Market Analysis 2004: World Shipbuilding and Maritime Casualties,” 4-5, in Shipping Statistics and Market Review, March 2005, Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (ISL).    9 Committee on Tank Vessel Design, National Academy of Sciences (1991), 14. Tanker Spills—Prevention by Design. National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.    10 Charles E. Herdendorf and Judy Conrad (1991), “Hurricane Gold: Part I—The Loss,” 4-17, Mariner’s Weather Log, Vol. 35, No. 3, 5-10. See also Thompson (1998), 58.    11 Anonymous (1857), 281, Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper: New York. Also mentioned in Thompson (1998), 58. CHAPTER 1    1 Dreams is a Hans Christian sailboat, an ocean cruising cutter with a full keel. She was launched in 1987. I purchased her in 1993 for the purpose of undertaking longer voyages not possible in Karess.    2 Zebrowski (1997), 150; Kinsman (1965), 11.    3 Hendrickson (1984), 122.    4 Homer (1996), 161-162.    5 Herodotus (1972), 283.    6 For details concerning fifteenth-century Chinese navigators, refer to Parry (1981), 39-40; Bergreen (2004), 232-238; and Levathes (1994).    7 Columbus’s remarkable journey is described in a number of excellent books. See Dyson (1991), 64. See also Taviani (1989); Morison (1978), 351-548; and Cummins (1992), 79-133.    8 Among the best descriptions of Magellan’s epic voyage is Bergreen (2004), 132-171, 391-392.    9 See Kinsman (1965). His book, with its eloquent and thought-provoking notes and asides, is fascinating reading.    10 Oceanographer Michel Ochi provides an excellent overview of these new developments. See Ochi (1998). CHAPTER 2    1 Price (1990), 64.    2 Two books provide a description of the race. See Knecht (2001), 306, for Ellison’s remark. Mundle (1999), 116, 164-169, 170-175, presents the stories of several other competitors.    3 Professor P. N. Joubert, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, personal communication, March 2006. Professor Joubert has sailed many times in the Sydney-Hobart on his boat Kingurra. For additional details concerning this inci-

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Extreme Waves    dent, see P. N. Joubert (2006), “Some Remarks of the 1998 Sydney-Hobart Race,” i-x, Transactions in Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Vol. 117, No. 2.    4 Bruce Johnson (2000), “Capsize Resistance and Survivability When Smaller Vessels Encounter Extreme Waves,” 48-49 in M. Olagnon and G. A. Athanassoulis, eds. (2001), Rogue Waves 2000, Proceedings of a workshop organized by Ifremer, November 29-30, 2000, Brest, France.    5 Peter Lewis, personal communication, July 5, 2005.    6 Van Dorn (1974), 69-71.    7 Preston and Preston (2004), 5.    8 Based on Van Dorn (1974), 75.    9 This summary description of currents is based on Bowditch (2002), 434-438.    10 To a small boat, hitting a partially submerged container at night in the middle of the Pacific is one of a yachtsman’s worst nightmares—equivalent to the Titanic hitting an iceberg.    11 Curtis C. Ebbesmeyer and W. James Ingraham, Jr. (1992), “Shoe Spill in the North Pacific,” Eos, Vol. 73, No. 34, August 25, 361-368.    12 One thousand leagues is 5,556 kilometers, or 3,452 miles.    13 Sverdrup et al. (2005), 236-238.    14 Hendrickson (1984), 135. In the early days of sailing, sailors used a log line to measure speed. The line consisted of a cord knotted at equal intervals of 15.5 meters (51 feet). At the end of the line was a triangular piece of wood (the log) weighted at one edge, the line attached so that the log floated vertically, almost like a kite. When thrown overboard from the stern of the vessel and the line allowed to flow out freely, the log would remain more or less stationary in the water. The navigator would count the number of knots passing through his hand while watching an hourglass timed for half a minute. At the end of this interval, the number of knots that had passed was equal to the speed of the vessel in nautical miles per hour—thus the term knot; since a nautical mile equals 6,076 feet, 120 knots is equal to 1 mile; this is also the number of half-minutes (120) in an hour, so the number of knots that pass over the stern in a half-minute is equal to speed in knots.    15 Massel (1996), 21-50. Theoretician Stanislaw Massel provides a detailed summary for anyone wanting to probe deeper into the mathematics of this subject. In summary, when wind first flows over calm water, atmospheric pressure fluctuations are advected (meaning horizontal air movement that causes changes in its properties) over the sea’s surface, creating a resonant effect that causes small wavelets to form.    16 Sverdrup et al. (2005), 254.    17 For conversion purposes, 1 bar = 0.987 atmosphere = 29.53 inches of mercury at 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Usual units are inches of mercury, millibars, or hectopascals (hPa), which are numerically equal to millibars, so the former term is used throughout this text because it is more familiar to most readers.    18 Farrington (1996), 116-122, 239-240.    19 Lochhaas (2003), 246-248.    20 Newsweek, “Solo Against the Sea,” April 4, 2005, 38-39.

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Extreme Waves    CHAPTER 3    1 A synopsis of the Derbyshire loss and subsequent investigation can be found at http://www.nautical-heritage.org.uk/derbyshire.html. The multiagency (government and Department of Defense, United States and Canada) Ship Structure Committee is a cooperative entity dedicated to research in the realm of ship structures, materials, and vessel performance; http://www.shipstructure.org. I have relied on its investigation of the Derbyshire loss as described in Daniel Tarman and Edgar Heitmann, “Case Study II: Derbyshire-Loss of a Bulk Carrier,” Washington, DC: Ship Structure Committee.    2 After Muga (1984), 159.    3 For more information on the probability of large waves, see Ochi (1998), 58; Young (1999), 25-26; and Bruce J. Muga, “Statistical Descriptions of Ocean Waves,” Chapter 6 in Wilson (1984), 159-161.    4 Young (1999), 27. Note: Be warned that in spite of this, the largest wave can be the third, the ninth, the tenth, etc.    5 Van Dorn (1974), 192-199.    6 Ochi (1998), 255-280.    7 Young (1994), 38-40.    8 Bowditch (2002), 443-449.    9 If you are uncomfortable with visualizing volumes of water, think of people coming down an escalator and imagine that those on the bottom are slow to exit. Pile-up!    10 Bowditch (2002), 449.    11 Adapted from Kinsman (1965), 11.    12 Bascom (1980), 95-111, Chapter 5, “Tides and Seiches.” This small book has one of the clearest descriptions of tidal behavior that I’ve encountered and is a remarkable book in other respects. It has been out of print for some time.    13 Jane Hollingsworth (1989), “The Chicago Seiches,” Mariners Weather Log, Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring, 16-19.    14 LeBlond (1978), 512.    15 This account is based on Beach (1966). Beach, a captain in the U.S. Navy, is perhaps best known for his classic book on submarines, Run Silent, Run Deep. His father, Edward L. Beach, Sr., was captain of the Memphis. See particularly pp. 52 and 96 for wave heights.    16 This estimate is based on the sailor’s rule of thumb that at sea level you can see an object 3 meters (10 feet) high at a distance of 3.6 nautical miles, or 30 meters (100 feet) high at 11.4 nautical miles, the limitation being the curvature of the earth. At the level of the Memphis bridge (assumed to be 50 feet above sea level), a 23-meter (75-foot) high wave could be seen at a distance of around 18 nautical miles. (This assumes perfect visibility, no haze or fog, good binoculars, etc.) See Chapman (1976), 603, for table of visibility of objects at sea.    17 Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis, personal communication, May 1, 2005. See also George Pararas-Carayannis (2005), “The Loss of the USS Memphis on 29 August 1916—Was a Tsunami Responsible?” Available at http://drgeorgepc.com/LossUSSMemphis1.hmtl. Accessed July 2005. This well-documented study demon-

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Extreme Waves    strates that it was most likely swell from hurricanes rather than a tsunami that wrecked the Memphis. CHAPTER 4    1 Rousmaniere (1983), 101-105.    2 Ron Holle, meteorologist, personal communication, August 2005. I thank Mr. Holle for reviewing the weather descriptions and clarifying key points for me. See also Chapman (1976), 241-242.    3 Typical maximum fetch for a local storm over the ocean is 500 nautical miles. This will produce waves with a significant wave height of 10 to 15 meters, crest to trough, if the wind blows for a long enough time, say a day and a half to two days. So Brad is not exaggerating; if anything, with wind speeds in excess of 70 knots, waves were higher than his estimate. See Chapter 2 and Sverdrup et al. (2005), 254.    4 Walker (2001), 111-260. In his book, Walker describes a half-dozen incidents involving rescues in terrible storms. In one instance, a coast guard pilot allowed his helicopter to descend a fraction too low and it was snatched from the air by a giant wave and lost with the entire crew.    5 Attributed to Patrick Etheridge, who served in the U.S. Life-Saving Service, an agency established by Congress in 1878. It was later merged with the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service to form the U.S. Coast Guard in 1915. See www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/history/faqs/LSSmotto.html. Accessed October 10, 2005.    6 Trumbull (1942), 205.    7 Couper (1983), 57.    8 See Sheets and Williams (2001), 1-2, 32-33, 191-193, 285-286.    9 Bowditch (2002), 503-505; also U.S National Weather Service, National Hurricane Center, http://www.nhc.noaa.gov, which is the source for the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, statistical data on hurricanes, Table 3 from Eric S. Blake et al., The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2004 (and other frequently requested hurricane facts), NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TPC-4, National Weather Service, National Hurricane Center, Tropical Prediction Center, updated August 2005; also see “Frequently Asked Questions.”    10 Newport Harbor Museum (1992), The Hurricane of 1939, video documentary.    11 Ochi (2003), vii.    12 This example is based on a storm history in Bowditch (2002), 508-510.    13 Young (1999), 150.    14 Underwater instruments measured a 27.5-meter (91-foot) high wave during the passage of Hurricane Ivan on September 15, 2004. See D. W. Wang, W. J. Teague, et al. (2005), “Extreme Seas Under the Eye of Ivan,” Joint Assembly of the American Geophysical Union, May 23-27; Sid Perkins (2005), “… and churn up big waves, too,” Science News, June 11, Vol. 167, No. 24, 382.    15 Young (1999), 144-160.    16 Krieger (2002).    17 Sverdrup et al. (2005), 204-205.    18 Simpson and Riehl (1981), 19. See also Hendrickson (1984), 308.

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Extreme Waves       19 Larson (1999), 200-203.    20 See Sheets and Williams (2001), 203-221. Readers interested in additional information are advised to consult the National Hurricane Center web site for an overview of the most recent models used for forecasting. The web site also provides references and links to more detailed technical literature for the National Hurricane Center web site; www.nhc.noaa.gov.    21 Carrier (2001).    22 Ochi (2003), 141. CHAPTER 5    1 Warshaw (2003), 619-621.    2 Wave heights are reported in different ways. On the Pacific coast it is the conventional trough-to-crest distance as viewed from the front of the wave. In Hawaii it is the height viewed from the back of the wave, since large waves are associated with reef breaks. Thus, a 21-meter (6.6-foot) wave in Hawaii is 3 to 4 meters (9.8 to 13.1 feet) anywhere else.    3 Warshaw (2003), 644.    4 Jenkins (1999), 2-16.    5 For the Atlantic and Pacific oceans bordering the United States, these forecasts may be accessed on the Internet by going to the National Weather Service home page at www.nws.noaa.gov and then clicking on “marine” and finally “weather charts.” Weather service meteorologists prepare the forecasts by amassing weather data from weather ships, weather buoys, volunteer ship weather reports, and satellite data and then using computer models to predict future weather conditions. The forecasts are updated several times per day and are issued for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The wind-wave charts show the significant wave heights Hs and display wind arrows that show the direction and speed of the wind. A different set of charts shows the direction and period (in seconds) of the dominant waves. Surface charts provide a compilation of major weather information, including notation of the locations of storms, gales, tropical storms, or hurricanes; atmospheric pressure in millibars; and locations and direction of movements for cold and warm fronts. Other charts show where tropical cyclone danger areas are located and provide sea surface temperatures as well as satellite images of various ocean areas.    6 David Reyes (2005), “Surf’s Up and So Is Chance of Flooding,” Los Angeles Times, March 10, B3.    7 A U.S. Navy web site, https://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/PUBLIC/WAM, commonly referred to as the “WAM” site, features colored maps of the North and South Atlantic oceans, the North and South Pacific oceans, and the Indian Ocean, showing wave directions and significant wave heights. The color codes range from dark blue for 0 to 1 meter (0 to 3 foot) wave heights, up to dark brown 14.6 meters (48 foot) wave heights. The forecasts for each region extend out six days in 12-hour intervals, so the movements of large waves can be anticipated. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as Canada, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and other entities operate a series of buoys in the Northwest Pacific

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Extreme Waves    and California coastal areas. These also can be accessed using the Internet. For example, www.ndbc.noaa.gov will take you to the locations of moored buoys scattered around the Pacific, as well as to the locations of drifting buoys. To obtain real-time data from a buoy, click on its image on the map. To see an example of a local conditions report, go to http://facs.scripps.edu/surf/images, which will lead you to a series of coastal buoys in the Southern California bight. In California, as in Hawaii, Australia, Brazil, Tahiti, and other international surfing spots, there are commercial services that provide surf forecasts. An example is www.stormsurf.com.    8 Ge Chen and Jun Ma (2002), “Identification of Swell Zones in the Ocean: A Remote Sensing Approach,” 946-948 in IEEE (2002), Remote Sensing: Integrating Our Views of the Planet, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2002, 24th Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Toronto, June 24-28, Piscataway, NJ: The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.    9 Winchester (2004), 277. CHAPTER 6    1 Bryant (2001), 4. Note that Bryant’s book is aptly subtitled “The Underrated Hazard.” After the events of December 26, 2004, in Southeast Asia, we can see that the hazard should no longer be underrated. The book is a clear, comprehensive, and excellent resource. Bryant states (p. 21) that there have been 462,597 deaths (1997 data) in the last 2,000 years.    2 Bryant (2001), xxiv, 84-120.    3 Myles (1985) describes the Ras Shamra and Santorini Island events: 154, 170-183; Zebrowski (1997), 7-13.    4 Elias Antar (1971), “Earthquake!” Saudi Aramco World, May/June, Vol. 22, No. 3, 5.    5 For information on Japanese tsunami, see Myles (1985), 97-109, 117-125, and Bryant (2001), 21, 49.    6 Preston (2004), 220; Myles (1985), 117-125; Marx (1983), 377-379.    7 Hendrickson (1984), 307, “Memoirs of Capt. L. G. Billings”; Myles (1985), 40-43.    8 Bryant (2001), 21.    9 James F. Lander and Patricia A. Lockridge (1989), 94-96. United States Tsunamis (Including United States Possessions 1690-1988). National Geophysical Data Center, Publication 41-2. Boulder, CO: U.S. Department of Commerce; Myles (1985), 47-53; Bryant (2001), 49.    10 Bryant (2001), 51; Sverdrup et al. (2005), 263.    11 Dudley and Lee (1998), 327.    12 Lander and Lockridge (1989), op. cit., 97.    13 See Lander and Lockridge (1989), op. cit.; Bryant (2001), 152-156.    14 Jerry L. Coffman and Carl A. von Hake, eds. (1973), 108-110, Earthquake History of the United States, Publication 41-1, Rev. ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Hendrickson (1984), 308; Bryant (2001), 156.

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Extreme Waves       15 Coffman and von Hake, et al. (1973), loc. cit.; Lander and Lockridge (1989), op. cit. 97-101; Myles (1985), 147, 148 (footnote 28) reports that geologists use the term “swash” to describe such a wave; Hugh Owens (2004), 52. “The Lituya Legacy.” Cruising World, October, 50-52.    16 Charles L. Mader (1999), “Modeling the 1958 Lituya Bay Mega-Tsunami,” Science of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 17, 57-67; George Pararas-Carayannis (1999), “Analysis of Mechanism of Tsunami Generation in Lituya Bay,” Science of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 17, 193-206.    17 Bryant (2001), 14.    18 Winchester (2004) is the classic reference, see 240-258; Sverdrup et al. (2005), 263; Prager (2000), 105.    19 N. N. Ambraseys (1962), “Data for the Investigation of the Seismic Sea Waves in the Eastern Mediterranean,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 895-913. CHAPTER 7    1 Jim Gower (2005), “Jason 1 Detects the 26 December 2004 Tsunami,” EOS Transactions AGU, Vol. 86, No. 4, 37. Available at http//www.agu.org/pubs/crosssref/2005/2005 EO040002.shtml. Accessed October 2, 2005.    2 Jose Borrero, et al. (2005), “Could It Happen Here?” Civil Engineering, April, 54-65, 133.    3 J. C. Carracedo (1994), “The Canary Islands: An Example of Structural Control on the Growth of Large Oceanic-Island Volcanoes,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 60, 225-241. CHAPTER 8    1 World Meteorological Organization (1988), 2-4. Guide to Wave Analysis and Forecasting. WMO-702. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.    2 Kinsman (1965), 19.    3 Price (1960), 43.    4 Lewis (1979).    5 Thomas (1997), 81.    6 Lewis (1979), 200-203.    7 This was accomplished under the auspices of the Polynesian Voyaging Society, formed in 1973 by Ben Finney, Herb Kane, and Tommy Holmes. See http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu. See also Finney (1994).    8 Robert Irving (1993), “Solitary Waves,” Mariners Weather Log, Vol. 37, No. 4, Fall 1993, 20-23; P. Taylor and C. Swan (2001), “New Waves, Solitons and Spreading,” in Olagnon and Athanassoulis (2001), op. cit. 137-142.    9 Flayhart (2003), 69-78.    10 Two excellent references on heavy weather sailing are Pardey (1996) and Coles (1996).

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Extreme Waves       11 This account is extracted from an account compiled by Alf Cook as reported on his web site www.shipsoflongago.co.uk and used with his permission. In my correspondence with Mr. Cook, he vividly recalled the excitement generated by Captain Carlsen’s determined efforts to save his ship. In addition, I reviewed the official U.S. Coast Guard Marine Board of Investigation report on the Flying Enterprise foundering, dated February 26, 1952. This report can be found by accessing http://www.uscg.mil/hq and searching the Marine Board of Investigation data base. See also Butler (1974), 168-169, 183.    12 Lochhaas (2003), 102-107; Aebi (1989), 292-293. CHAPTER 9    1 British Broadcasting Corporation (2002).    2 Apollonius Rhodius (1998), 39-40.    3 Ochi (1998), 253; and Douglas Faulkner (2001), “Rogue Waves—Defining Their Characteristics for Marine Design” in Olagnon and Athanassoulis (2001), op. cit., 6.    4 British Broadcasting Corporation (2002). See transcript, www.BBC.co.uk, quoting Dr. Marten Grundlingh, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa; Sverdrup et al. (2005), 255.    5 Goss and Behe (1994), 187. Besides Goss and Behe’s account, interested readers can refer to the Board of Trade Court of Inquiry Report No. 7419 on SS Waratah, March 17, 1911, London, or J. G. Lockhart (1925), Mysteries of the Sea: A Book of Strange Tales, London: Phillip Allen Co.    6 For photographs and details go to the National Underwater & Marine Agency (South Africa) web site at www.numa.co.za. NUMA is a nonprofit organization founded by Clive Cussler and supported by his book royalties, for the purpose of preserving maritime history. It has supported explorations at 60-plus historical wrecks. The home page is www.numa.net.    7 Captain Jeffrey W. Monroe (1993), “Ship Handling in Heavy Seas,” Mariners Weather Log, Vol. 37, No. 4, Fall, 10; Committee on Tank Vessel Design (1991), op. cit., 16-17; Bascom (1980), 64.    8 Bascom (1980), 64; British Broadcasting Corporation (2002), 4.    9 Edward J. Barr (1994), “Freak Wave on a Submarine,” Mariners Weather Log, Vol. 38, No. 4, 34-35.    10 British Broadcasting Corporation (2002).    11 Bascom (1980), 59-60. See also Jerome W. Nickerson (1993), “Freak Waves,” Mariners Weather Log, Vol. 37, No. 4, Fall, 15.    12 Bascom (1980), 60; Sverre Haver (2001), “Evidences of the Existence of Freak Waves,” in Olagnon and Athanassoulis eds. (2001), op. cit., 138.    13 Junger (1997), 71.    14 See www.ocens.com for details.    15 For example, Charles Memminger, “Student Earns A-Plus in Sea Ordeal,” Honolulu Star Bulletin, January 28, 2005, E1; “Semester at Sea Cut Short by 50-Foot Wave,” Los Angeles Times, January 28, 2005, A17; “Students on Battered Ship Reach Shore,” Los Angeles Times, February 1, 2005, A14; Kelsey Fronk, “Semester at Sea

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Extreme Waves    Endures Massive Wave in Pacific,” Daily Aztec (San Diego State University), February 14, 2005.    16 See Bascom (1980), 60; Captain Jeffrey W. Monroe (1993), “Ship Handling in Heavy Seas,” Mariners Weather Log, Vol. 37, No. 4, Fall, 12.    17 Miles Lawrence (1995) “Preliminary Report, Hurricane Luis, 27 August-11 September, 1995,” U.S. National Hurricane Center, www.nhc.noaa.gov.    18 Naval History Division (1979), 322. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Vol. V (letters N through Q). Washington, DC: U.S. Navy Department. See also Kotsch and Henderson (1984), 343, 351.    19 RPMs means engine revolutions per minute. On large ships under normal cruising conditions the vessel speed is often measured in terms of the engine RPMs.    20 Butler (1974), 198-211.    21 I am grateful for the assistance of Chris Chabot, who produced a documentary about the loss of the Fitzgerald, and to Fred Shannon, who has carried out extensive research on the sinking of the vessel, for sharing their insights with me. See also Hugh E. Bishop (2001), The Night the Fitz Went Down, Duluth, MN: Lake Superior Port Cities, Inc.    22 Thomas Ray (1965), “A History of Texas Towers in Air Defense, 1952-1964,” Historical Document 29. Washington, DC: Air Defense Command.    23 Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta (2002), 97. “Extreme Wave Crest and Sea State Duration,” Appendix B4, A. D. Jenkins et al., Research Report No. 138. Bergen: Norwegian Meteorological Institute.    24 Ernie Barker (1998), “Rogue Wave” (unpublished manuscript), 1-2. A single-handed sailor’s journal of wave adventures in the Tasman Sea.    25 MaxWave Project (2003), Research Project No. EVK:3-2000-00544. Bergen: Commission of the European Communities. Accessed 11/5/04. Available at http://w3gkss.de/projects/maxwave, 2005. Includes scope of work, scientific and technical objectives, work plan, selected technical reports, and a description of the tasks planned in this ambitious and important new research program aimed at improving our knowledge of extreme waves. See “Scientific/Technical Objectives and Innovation,” p. 3.    26 Massel (1996), 382-383.    27 Jim Gower and David Jones (1994), “Canadian West Coast Giant Waves,” Mariners Weather Log, Vol. 38, No. 2, Spring, pp. 4-8.    28 Sverdrup et al. (2005), 254-255. See also Naval History Division (1979), op. cit., 23-24.    29 Ritchie (1996), 176.    30 MaxWave Project (2003), op. cit. See “Scientific/Technical Objectives and Innovation.” CHAPTER 10    1 Committee on Tank Vessel Design (1991), op. cit., 30.    2 Christel Heideloff and Richard Monden (2005), “ISL Market Analysis 2005: World Merchant Fleet, OECD Shipping and Shipbuilding,” in Shipping Statistics

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Extreme Waves    and Market Review, January/February, Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics.    3 Ibid., “ISL Market Analysis 2005: Tanker Fleet Development,” 1-5.    4 In addition to Captain Jannsen, I am grateful for the hospitality of Captain Giuseppe Mazzoleni, master of the Cygnus Voyager.    5 Tarman and Heitmann (no date), op. cit., 3.    6 Heideloff and Monden (2005), op. cit., 2-3.    7 Vadim Belenky (2004), “Demystifying Parametric Roll,” Surveyor, Fall, 26-29.    8 Tarman and Heitmann (no date), op. cit., 1-18.    9 The International Association of Classification Societies web site (www.iacs.org.uk) is the source of this information.    10 Ibid., Recommendation No. 46, Bulk Carriers—Guidance on Bulk Cargo Loading and Discharging to Reduce the Likelihood of Over-Stressing the Hull Structure (1997); Recommendation No. 76, IACS Guidelines for Surveys, Assessment and Repair of Hull Structure—Bulk Carriers; Revision 2 (2004); Recommendation No. 15, Care and Survey of Hatch Covers of Dry Cargo Ships—Guidance to Owners; Revision 2 (1997).    11 Ibid. (1997), Bulk Carriers—Guidance on Bulk Cargo Loading and Discharging to Reduce the Likelihood of Over-Stressing the Hull Structure.    12 Ibid. (2001), Recommendation No. 34, Standard Wave Data, 2.    13 The International Association of Classification Societies, letter to shipping and shipbuilding associations, etc., from Ugo Salerno. Subject: IACS Common Rules for Oil Tankers and Bulk Carriers. Genoa: May 17, 2004. CHAPTER 11    1 Mr. Tony Gioiello, chief engineer, Port of Los Angeles, personal communication, May 17, 2005. In addition to meeting with me, Mr. Gioiello granted me access to the port’s library. I am very grateful to him for his assistance.    2 California State Lands Commission (2005), “Marine Oil Terminal Engineering and Maintenance Standards (MOTEMS).” California Code of Regulations, Chapter 31F of Div. 1-11, Title 24, Part 2, Vol. 1, January 19.    3 Eddie Bernard et al. (1993), “Tsunami Devastates Japanese Coastal Region,” (Hokkaido Tsunami Survey Group). Seattle, WA: Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. This report and photographs of the tsunami wall and tsunami damage can be found at www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/okushiri.    4 J. M. Huslid et al. (1983), “Alternate Deep Water Concepts for Northern North Sea Extreme Conditions,” 18-49, in Chryssotomos Chryssostomidis and Jerome J. Connor, eds. (1983), Behaviour of Off-Shore Structures, Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Vol. 1. New York: Hemisphere.    5 J. Thebault et al. (1985), “In-Service Response Analysis of Two Fixed Offshore Platforms,” 123-131 in J. A. Battjes ed. (1985), Behaviour of Offshore Structures—Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Behaviour of Offshore Structures (BOSS ’85). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

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Extreme Waves       6 Captain Jerry Fee, U.S. Navy (retired), personal communication,. Captain Fee spent many hours with me, both personally and subsequently by e-mail and telephone, locating information and answers for me when he did not have the answer himself. I am very grateful for his assistance.    7 Sverdrup et al. (2005), 254-255.    8 Frump (2001), 30-31, 45-46.    9 U.S. Coast Guard (1984), “SS Marine Electric, O.N. 245675, Capsizing and Sinking in the Atlantic Ocean on 12 February 1983 with Multiple Loss of Life,” Marine Casualty Report, No. 16732/0001 HQS 83, Washington, DC.    10 The International Association of Classification Societies has published “Recommendation No. 34: Standard Wave Data,” dated November 2001. This recommendation applies to the North Atlantic. The table of sea states shows the most probable waves as being 10.5 meters (34.4 feet) or less. The maximum height listed in the table is 16.5 meters (54.4 feet). According to the table, only 60 to 70 waves out of 100,000 would be 10.5 meters, and only 40 to 50 waves out of 100,000 would be between 10.5 and 16.5 meters (34.4 to 54.4 feet). In a North Atlantic voyage lasting 10 days, 75,000 11.5-second-period waves would be encountered (about 313 waves per hour). On the voyage, the table indicates the possibility that as many as 30 to 40 waves could be in the 10.5- to 16.5-meter (34.4- to 54.4-foot) height range.    11 Captain Jan Jannsen, personal communication, July 8, 2005.    12 An excellent explanation of marine weather charts may be found in Carr (1999).    13 Peter Janssen (2004), “Towards Freak-Wave Prediction Over the Global Oceans,” 24-27. European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF Newsletter, No. 100, Spring.    14 Henry Chen, Vincent Cardone, and Peter Lacey (1998), “Use of Operation Support Information Technology to Increase Ship Safety and Efficiency,” SNAME Transactions, Vol. 106, 105-127.    15 A number of weather routing services exist. Rick Shema, www.weatherguy.com, (808) 254-2525, is a former U.S. Navy meteorologist who specializes in routing services for racers and cruisers worldwide, with clients in all the major ocean and sea basins. Several others that have provided routing services for everything from commercial shipping to yacht races, including America’s Cup, are Weather Routing Inc., www.wriwx.com, (518) 798-1110; Commander’s Weather, www.commandersweather.com, (603) 882-6789, used by many of the Around the World Alone sailors including Brad Van Liew; Skip Gallimore uses OCENS Grib Explorer and weather-on-demand services, www.ocens.com, (206) 878-8270.    16 A German research organization developed WaMoS II, a system that uses marine x-band radar to determine the two-dimensional wave spectrum by analyzing the radar images that are scattered back from the sea’s surface. Then, using the measured spectrum, a computer program calculates the significant wave height, the period of the peak wave, its wavelength, and its direction. The system uses a dedicated minicomputer that can be connected to an existing shipboard radar system. Wave data are thus available immediately onboard the vessel and show the wave environment for a distance of around 3 nautical miles from the vessel. The WaMoS II system has been installed on both offshore platforms and vessels, and a number

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Extreme Waves    of tests have been made to compare measurement results obtained by it with data obtained by floating buoys and laser wave height measurements. To see an example, go to www.oceanwaves.org and click on “real time data.”    17 See L. R. Wyatt and J. J. Green, “The Availability and Accuracy of HF Radar Wave Measurements,” Vol. 1, 515-517, IEEE (2002); S. Lehner, J. Schulz-Stellenfleth, and A. Niedermeir, “Detection of Extreme Waves Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Images,” Vol. 3, 1893-1895, IEEE, (2002); D. Hoja, J. Schulz-Stellenfleth, S. Lehner, and T. Konig, “Global Analysis of Ocean Wave Systems from SAR Wave Mode Data,” Vol. 2, 934-936, IEEE (2002). APPENDIX A    1 Professor Chris Garrett, University of Victoria, British Columbia, personal communication with Craig B. Smith, October 5, 2005.    2 Kristian B. Dysthe (2000), “Modeling a Rogue Wave—Speculations or a Realistic Possibility?” in Olagnon and Athanassoulis (2001), op. cit. 255-264.    3 Efim Pelinovski et al. (2000), “Nonlinear Wave Focusing as a Mechanism of the Freak Wave Generation in the Ocean,” in Olagnon and Athanassoulis (2001), op. cit., 193-204.    4 Peter Janssen, “Nonlinear four-wave interaction and freak waves,” in Müller (2005), 85-90.    5 Kristian B. Dysthe (2000), “Modeling a Rogue Wave—Speculations or a Realistic Possibility?” in Olagnon and Athanassoulis (2001), op. cit., 255-264; also in the same reference: Miguel Onorato et al., “Occurrence of Freak Waves from Envelope Equations in Random Ocean Wave Simulations,” 181, and Efim Pelinovski et al., “Nonlinear Wave Focusing as a Mechanism of the Freak Wave Generation in the Ocean,” 193-204.