Notes

1
TO SEE THE WORLD IN A GRAIN OF SAND

p. 12 Your waistline may be spreading: Richard Price, quoted in Zeeya Merali, “Why the Universe Is Expanding Without Us,” New Scientist, October 1, 2005, p. 13.

p. 12 Were the succession of stars endless: Edgar Allen Poe, Eureka: A Prose Poem (Putnam: New York, 1848), p. 102.

p. 14 Resolution of Olbers’ paradox: Paul S. Wesson, K. Valle, and R. Stabell, “The Extragalactic Background Light and a Definitive Resolution of Olbers’ Paradox,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 317, pp. 601-606 (1987).

p. 16 If all places: Isaac Newton, “On Universal Design,” in Newton’s Philosophy of Nature, H. S. Thayer, ed. (New York: Hafner Publishing Co., 1953), p. 67.

2
INFINITY IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND

p. 28 vicious, inflexible, quarrelsome: Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man’s Changing Vision of the Universe (New York: Macmillan, 1959), p. 229.

p. 28 Yet as I reflected: Ibid., p. 259.



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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Notes 1 TO SEE THE WORLD IN A GRAIN OF SAND p. 12 Your waistline may be spreading: Richard Price, quoted in Zeeya Merali, “Why the Universe Is Expanding Without Us,” New Scientist, October 1, 2005, p. 13. p. 12 Were the succession of stars endless: Edgar Allen Poe, Eureka: A Prose Poem (Putnam: New York, 1848), p. 102. p. 14 Resolution of Olbers’ paradox: Paul S. Wesson, K. Valle, and R. Stabell, “The Extragalactic Background Light and a Definitive Resolution of Olbers’ Paradox,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 317, pp. 601-606 (1987). p. 16 If all places: Isaac Newton, “On Universal Design,” in Newton’s Philosophy of Nature, H. S. Thayer, ed. (New York: Hafner Publishing Co., 1953), p. 67. 2 INFINITY IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND p. 28 vicious, inflexible, quarrelsome: Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man’s Changing Vision of the Universe (New York: Macmillan, 1959), p. 229. p. 28 Yet as I reflected: Ibid., p. 259.

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos p. 33 Absolute space: Isaac Newton, “Fundamental Principles of Natural Philosophy,” in Newton’s Philosophy of Nature, H. S. Thayer, ed. (New York: Hafner Publishing Co., 1953), pp. 17-18. p. 33 Relative quantities: Ibid., p. 23. p. 33 Instead of referring a moving body: Ernst Mach, The Science of Mechanics, translated by Thomas McCormack (Chicago: Open Court, 1907), p. 234. p. 34 The fact that the needle: Albert Einstein, “Autobiographisches,” in Albert Einstein als Philosoph und Naturforscher [Albert Einstein as a Philosopher and Scientist], Paul Arthur Schilpp, ed. (Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1979), p. 7. Quoted in Albrecht Fölsing, Albert Einstein, translated by Ewald Osers (New York: Penguin, 1997), p. 14. p. 39 How does it come: Albert Einstein, Autobiographical Notes, translated and edited by Paul Arthur Schilpp (La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1979), p. 59. p. 54 That was my problem: Carl Sagan, interviewed on Nova: Time Travel. p. 60 We know almost nothing: Bryce DeWitt, reported in The First William Fairbank Meeting on Relativistic Gravitational Experiments in Space, M. Demianski and C. W. F. Everitt, eds. (Singapore: World Scientific, 1993), p. xvii. p. 66 My father: C. W. Francis Everitt, personal communication, January 26, 2005. p. 70 Jerrold said to me: Interview with Rainer Weiss, Haverford College, April 5, 2005. p. 72 Observing gravitational waves: Ibid. 3 ETERNITY IN AN HOUR p. 76 committed something in the theory: Letter from Albert Einstein to Paul Ehrenfest, February 4, 1917. Quoted by Albrecht

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Fölsing in Albert Einstein, translated by Ewald Osers (New York: Penguin, 1997), p. 387. p. 81 grumpy letter: Edward Harrison, Cosmology: The Science of the Universe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), p. 297. p. 82 Not for a moment: Ibid., p. 307. p. 87 It seems that this “alphabetical” article: Letter from George Gamow to Oskar Klein, undated (probably 1948), Niels Bohr Archive. p. 87 Thank you very much: Letter from Oskar Klein to George Gamow, undated (probably 1948), Niels Bohr Archive. p. 90 A third alternative cosmology, originally proposed by Klein and later modified by Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén, never quite caught on. It imagined the cosmos as a contracting, then exploding, plasma of matter and antimatter. p. 92 There is one unfortunate: R. H. Dicke, A Scientific Autobiography, 1975, unpublished. Cited by W. Harper, P. J. E. Peebles, and D. T. Wilkinson in “Robert Henry Dicke: A Bibliographical Memoir,” Princeton University Physics Department, unpublished manuscript, p. 6 (2001). p. 93 Throughout most of the history: Steven Weinberg, The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe (New York: Basic Books, 1977), p. 4. p. 94 I cannot deny: Ibid., p. 9. p. 103 One of the things he talked about: Alan Guth, quoted by Alan Lightman and Roberta Brawer in Origins: The Lives and Worlds of Modern Cosmologists (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), pp. 470-471. p. 104 he was generous: Alan Guth, The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins (Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1997), p. 207. p. 107 I had a telescope: Interview with Paul Steinhardt, Princeton University, November 5, 2002.

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos p. 112 The Big Bang: Dead or Alive?, Sky and Telescope, May 1991, p. 467. p. 113 I always enjoyed: Saul Perlmutter, “Did you ever wonder… what dark energy accelerates the universe?,” Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report, http://www.lbl.gov/wonder/perlmutter.html. p. 116 I think people: Interview with Paul Steinhardt, Princeton University, November 5, 2002. p. 118 Fortunately Andrei: Michael Turner, talk given at an American Physical Society meeting, April 5, 2003. 4 DARKNESS APPARENT p. 122 If it is tidal debris: Robert Minchin et al., “A Dark Hydrogen Cloud in the Virgo Cluster,” Cardiff University preprint, p. 1 (2004). p. 123 In 1962, with my students: Vera Rubin, “A Brief History of Dark Matter,” Swarthmore College Colloquium, February 25, 2005. p. 135 The new upgrade: Leslie Rosenberg, quoted by Ann Parker in “Small Particle May Answer Large Physics Questions,” Science and Technology Review, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January/February 2004, pp. 9-11. p. 139 string theory is a piece: Ed Witten, “On the Right Track,” Frontline, vol. 18, no. 3 (2001). p. 140 Unfortunately, the microrealm: John Horgan, “Is Science a Victim of Its Own Success?,” APS News, December 1996. p. 141 The idea that invisible halo objects could be composed of mirror matter was first put forth by Rabindra N. Mohapatra and Vigdor L. Teplitz in “Mirror Matter MACHOs,” Physics Letters B, vol. 462, p. 302 (1999). p. 142 believed that he might be able: H. G. Wells, “The First Men in the Moon,” Seven Science Fiction Novels, (New York: Dover, 1934), p. 467.

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos p. 143 The old question: Phone interview, Alan Chodos, December 6, 2002. p. 143 At the time: Phone interview, Raman Sundrum, December 3, 2002. p. 146 For an account of the evolution of Darwin’s finches on Galapagos, see Jonathan Weiner, The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time (New York: Knopf, 1994). 5 EVER-CHANGING MOODS p. 150 Nobody knew him very well: Phone interview, Engelbert Schucking, December 9, 2002. p. 150 It is nice, but: George Gamow, Thirty Years that Shook Physics (New York: Doubleday, 1966), p. 121. p. 156 Itzhak Goldman, “Limits of G-Variability from Spin-down of Radio Pulsars,” The First William Fairbank Meeting on Relativistic Gravitational Experiments in Space, M. Demianski and C. W. F. Everitt, eds. (Singapore: World Scientific, 1993), pp. 9-14. p. 160 We cannot decide immediately: Pascual Jordan, The Expanding Earth: Some Consequences of Dirac’s Gravitation Hypothesis, translated and edited by Arthur Beer (New York: Pergamon Press, 1971), pp. 156-157. p. 160 The idea of changing G: Phone interview, Engelbert Schucking, December 9, 2002. p. 162 lifelong obsession: João Magueijo, Faster than the Speed of Light: The Story of a Scientific Speculation (Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus, 2003), p. 139. p. 165 found that there was a considerable potential: Robert L. Oldershaw, “Self-Similar Cosmological Model: Introduction and Empirical Tests,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 669-694 (1989). p. 170 The slightly more complex rule relating angular momentum and mass is described by Wlodzimierz Godlowski,

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Marek Szydlowski, Piotr Flin, and Monika Biernacka in “Rotation of the Universe and the Angular Momenta of Celestial Bodies,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 907-913 (2003). p. 170 A possible connection between dark energy and the rotation of the universe is explored by Wlodzimierz Godlowski and Marek Szydlowski in “Dark Energy and Global Rotation of the Universe,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2171-2187 (2003). 6 ESCAPE CLAUSE p. 176 the ultimate free lunch: Alan Guth, quoted by Marcia Bartusiak in Through a Universe Darkly: A Cosmic Tale of Ancient Ethers, Dark Matter and the Fate of the Universe (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 247. p. 178 To his amazement: Abdus Salam, interviewed on “NOVA: What Einstein Never Knew,” originally broadcast October 22, 1985. p. 179 Einstein asked a question: Theodor Kaluza, Jr., interviewed on “NOVA: What Einstein Never Knew,” originally broadcast October 22, 1985. p. 188 The folded universe picture: Nima Arkani-Hamed, Savas Dimopoulos, Nemanja Kaloper, and Gia Dvali, “Manyfold Universe,” Journal of High Energy Physics, vol. 12, p. 4 (2000). p. 189 When I find a model of physics: Phone interview, Raman Sundrum, December 3, 2002. p. 190 I’ve been waiting for string theory: Interview with Paul Steinhardt, Princeton University, November 5, 2002. p. 192 Once the universe: Ibid.

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos 7 WHAT IS REAL? p. 196 [General relativity] is sufficient: Albert Einstein, “Physics and Reality,” In Ideas and Opinions, Carl Seelig, ed., (New York: Crown Publishers, 1954), p. 311. p. 203 a rounded, smooth and well-defined heap: John Scott Russell, “Report on Waves,” Report of the Fourteenth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (London, 1845), pp. 311-390. p. 206 There is no fundamental difference: C. Brans and R. H. Dicke, “Mach’s Principle and a Relativistic Theory of Gravitation,” Physical Review, vol. 124, no. 3, p. 927 (1961). p. 208 There’s one thing quite certain: Fred Hoyle, October the First Is Too Late, (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 75. p. 208 think of the universe: J. G. Ballard, “Myths of the Near Future,” The Complete Short Stories of J. G. Ballard (London: Flamingo, 2001), p. 1078. p. 208 General scientific considerations: Arthur Eddington, The Philosophy of Physical Science (New York: Macmillan, 1939), p. 197. p. 209 For us believing physicists: Letter from Albert Einstein to Vero and Bice Besso, March 21, 1955. Translated and quoted by Banesh Hoffmann, with Helen Dukas, in Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel (New York: New American Library, 1972), pp. 257-258. CONCLUSION p. 216 An onlooker may object: Arthur Eddington, The Philosophy of Physical Science, p. 16.

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos p. 217 We have found a strange footprint: Arthur Eddington, Space, Time and Gravitation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921), p. 201. p. 223 There were timelines branching: Larry Niven, All the Myriad Ways (New York: Ballantine Books, 1971), p. 1. p. 224 empirically testable: Max Tegmark, “Parallel Universes,” Science and Ultimate Reality: From Quantum to Cosmos, J. D. Barrow, P. C. W. Davies, and C. L. Harper, eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 21. p. 224 Is there another copy: Ibid. p. 230 Observation: Arthur Eddington, The Philosophy of Physical Science, p. 9.