Supramolecular Biomaterials Engineering and Design

NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE

James S. Murday

Office of Naval Research


The prospects for significant scientific discoveries and economic gain have caused investment in the development of nanometer-scale structures to grow significantly around the world. The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a U.S. federal research and development (R&D) program established to coordinate multiagency efforts in nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. Of the 23 participating federal agencies, 11 have budgets for nanotechnology R&D. The NNI is managed within the framework of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), whose members, appointed by the President, are leaders in industry, academia, and government. The Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the NSTC, composed of representatives of the agencies participating in the NNI, coordinates planning, budgeting, program implementation, and review to ensure a balanced and comprehensive initiative.

The goals of the NNI are to (1) maintain a world-class research and development program aimed at realizing the full potential of nanotechnology; (2) facilitate the transfer of new technologies into products for economic growth, jobs, and other public benefit; (3) develop educational resources, a skilled workforce, and the supporting infrastructure and tools to advance nanotechnology; and (4) support the responsible development of nanotechnology. As the NNI enters its fifth year, rapid progress is being made within nanotechnology and evidence is growing that nanostructures can play significant roles in medicine. This presentation provides an overview of the NNI, with specific attention to its medicine and health components, selected examples of exciting nanostructure work in medicine, and a status report on the evolving NNI strategic plan.



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Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies Supramolecular Biomaterials Engineering and Design NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE James S. Murday Office of Naval Research The prospects for significant scientific discoveries and economic gain have caused investment in the development of nanometer-scale structures to grow significantly around the world. The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a U.S. federal research and development (R&D) program established to coordinate multiagency efforts in nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. Of the 23 participating federal agencies, 11 have budgets for nanotechnology R&D. The NNI is managed within the framework of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), whose members, appointed by the President, are leaders in industry, academia, and government. The Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the NSTC, composed of representatives of the agencies participating in the NNI, coordinates planning, budgeting, program implementation, and review to ensure a balanced and comprehensive initiative. The goals of the NNI are to (1) maintain a world-class research and development program aimed at realizing the full potential of nanotechnology; (2) facilitate the transfer of new technologies into products for economic growth, jobs, and other public benefit; (3) develop educational resources, a skilled workforce, and the supporting infrastructure and tools to advance nanotechnology; and (4) support the responsible development of nanotechnology. As the NNI enters its fifth year, rapid progress is being made within nanotechnology and evidence is growing that nanostructures can play significant roles in medicine. This presentation provides an overview of the NNI, with specific attention to its medicine and health components, selected examples of exciting nanostructure work in medicine, and a status report on the evolving NNI strategic plan.

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Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMATERIALS: VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTMENT AND EMERGING BUSINESS ISSUES Edward K. Moran Deloitte & Touche Although the profile of nanotechnology is being raised by the attention it is receiving from several well-known venture capitalists and financial institutions, most venture capitalists are still not very knowledgeable about nanotechnology. Many states don’t have trade associations or initiatives in nanotechnology, and setbacks for individual companies can be interpreted as proof that nanotechnology is overhyped and underperforming. However, over $40 billion in uninvested venture capital is driving the search for the next big thing, and investment in nanotechnology increased from an estimated 5 deals worth less than $20 million in venture capital funding in 1998 to an estimated 34 deals worth $300 million in 2003.1 Between the beginning of 2001 and the end of 2003, the percentage of total venture capital funding being spent on expansion and later-stage activities as opposed to start-up/seed and early-stage activities steadily increased from less than 20 percent to over 70 percent.2 Biomaterials still account for less than half of nanotechnology investment, with one source estimating that only about 30 percent of venture capital investments in nanotechnology are in biomaterials companies. The idea of a blockbuster drug, device, or material has a tremendous allure for investors, but the costs and risks of investing in such technologies are also high. Emerging biomaterials companies face a variety of business issues. First, because of the novelty of these technologies, it makes sense to partner. Second, although venture capitalists are comfortable with the biotechnology model, many early-stage biomaterials companies fail when trying to move from concept to commercialization. In addition, the competition has become more complex over two dimensions: geography and industry. Other issues that affect investment include environmental concerns, competition with other countries, technology transfer, clustering best practices, and the need for a model for dealing with the export of potentially problematic technologies. 1   Small Times, March 2004. 2   Ibid.

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Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies GLOBALIZATION: CHALLENGES FOR TRADE ORGANIZATIONS Nik Rokop Chicago Microtechnology and Nanotechnology Community Nanotechnology is broad in scope, even when applied to a limited field such as biomedical materials. The success of any nanotechnology venture will be a function of the ability to interact with those in complementary fields. Researchers, companies, and trade organizations can no longer ignore the work being done in the rest of the world. Competition for resources is particularly strong in the sciences, but the benefits of collaboration outweigh its costs. This presentation provides several examples of regional efforts to facilitate international collaboration. ENGINEERING BIOCOMPATIBLE NANOSTRUCTURES Vicki L. Colvin Rice University Traditionally, nanotechnology has been driven by the growing importance of very small (diameter less than 50 nm) computational and optical elements in diverse technologies. However, this length scale is also an important and powerful one for living systems. Researchers at Rice University believe that the interface between the “dry” side of inorganic nanostructures and the “wet” side of biology offers enormous opportunities for medicine and environmental technologies, as well as entirely new types of nanomaterials. As part of their work on potential biological applications of nanomaterials, they also consider the unintended environmental implications of water-soluble forms of these materials. Given the breadth of nanomaterial systems, Rice University researchers use a carefully selected group of model nanoparticles in their studies and focus on the natural processes that occur in aqueous systems. They characterize the size- and surface-dependent transport and fate of these engineered nanomaterials and their facilitated contaminant transport. In some cases, models from larger colloidal particles can be extended to the nanometer size regime, while in others entirely new phenomena present themselves. Rice University researchers also consider the biological interactions of nanoparticles and specifically address the interactions of a classic nanomaterial, C60, with cellular systems.

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Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies BIOCONJUGATED NANOTUBES FOR BIOSENSING AND BIOSEPARATIONS Charles R. Martin University of Florida Starting in the 1980s, the Martin research group pioneered a versatile method for preparing nanomaterials called template synthesis. This method entails synthesizing nanoscopic particles of the desired materials within the pores of a nanopore membrane or other solid. The Martin research group has been especially interested in template-prepared nanotubes. These nanotubes are model systems for naturally occurring protein channels (e.g., ion channels). In addition, they are developing nanotube-containing membranes for bioseparations and biosensors. The work involves the biofunctionalization of nanotubes with, for example, enzymes, antibodies, and DNA. The group is especially interested in nanotube membranes for DNA and chiral separations and in nanotube-based biosensors for proteins such as immunoglobulins and the bioterror agent ricin. METAL NANOSHELLS: DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Jennifer L. West Rice University Nanoshells are a new type of nanoparticle with tunable optical properties. They consist of a non-conducting core (e.g., silica) and a metal shell (e.g., gold) of a desired thickness. The particle is optically tuned by varying the thickness of the shell and the size of the core. Nanoshell fabrication consists of the following steps: (1) growth of silica cores using the Stöber method; (2) coating of the core with amino propyl triethoxysilane to terminate the surface of the nanoparticle with amine groups; (3) immersion of amine-coated silica particles in a bath of small gold colloid; and (4) reduction of more gold onto the seed particles until the particles coalesce into a complete shell. For medical applications, these particles can be designed to strongly absorb or scatter light in the near infrared, where tissue and blood are relatively transparent. In a cancer therapy application, nanoshells are designed to absorb near-infrared light and convert the energy to heat in order to destroy the cancerous cells to which they are bound. This binding is accomplished by conjugating antibodies or peptides to the nanoshell

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Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies surfaces and results in specific and localized destruction of the tumor. A photothermally modulated drug delivery system, optically controlled valves for microfluidics devices, and a rapid whole blood immunoassay are also under development using nanoshells.

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