About the Authors

Charles H. Hobbs (Chair) is Director of Toxicology at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in Albuquerque, N.M. He is also Vice-President of the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute. Dr. Hobbs’ primary research interests are the long-term biological effects of inhaled materials and the mechanisms by which they occur. His experience covers inhaled nuclear and chemical toxicants as well as infectious diseases, with research in such areas as physical and chemical characterization of airborne toxicants, in vitro mechanistic and toxicologic studies, and long-term studies in laboratory animals (particularly regarding the relationships between dose to critical tissues and resulting biological effects and the active mechanisms in determining these relationships). Dr. Hobbs has also been heavily involved in research management, focusing on the direction and use of multidisciplinary teams to address complex problems. He received his D.V.M. with high distinction at Colorado State University.


David C. Dorman is Director of the Biological Sciences Division at CIIT Center for Health Research in Research Triangle Park, N.C. (CIIT was previously known as the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology). Dr. Dorman is nationally recognized for his research on the nasal toxicity, neurotoxicology, and pharmacokinetics of inhaled chemicals. He conducted studies to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of inhaled methanol in normal and folate-deficient monkeys, for example, and to determine the neuroteratogenic effects of methanol in rodents. He is an adjunct professor of toxicology at North Carolina State University, Duke University, and the University of North Carolina. Dr. Dorman holds a Ph.D. in Veterinary Biosciences/Toxicology from



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About the Authors Charles H. Hobbs (Chair) is Director of Toxicology at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute in Albuquerque, N.M. He is also Vice-President of the Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute. Dr. Hobbs’ primary research interests are the long-term biological effects of inhaled materials and the mechanisms by which they occur. His experience covers inhaled nuclear and chemical toxicants as well as infectious diseases, with research in such areas as physical and chemical characterization of airborne toxicants, in vitro mechanistic and toxicologic studies, and long-term studies in laboratory animals (particularly regarding the relationships between dose to critical tissues and resulting biological effects and the active mechanisms in determining these relationships). Dr. Hobbs has also been heavily involved in research management, focusing on the direction and use of multidisciplinary teams to address complex problems. He received his D.V.M. with high distinction at Colorado State University. David C. Dorman is Director of the Biological Sciences Division at CIIT Center for Health Research in Research Triangle Park, N.C. (CIIT was previously known as the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology). Dr. Dorman is nationally recognized for his research on the nasal toxicity, neurotoxicology, and pharmacokinetics of inhaled chemicals. He conducted studies to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of inhaled methanol in normal and folate-deficient monkeys, for example, and to determine the neuroteratogenic effects of methanol in rodents. He is an adjunct professor of toxicology at North Carolina State University, Duke University, and the University of North Carolina. Dr. Dorman holds a Ph.D. in Veterinary Biosciences/Toxicology from 59

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60 DEVELOPING COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST AEROSOLIZED AGENTS the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) and a D.V.M. from Colorado State University. Diane E. Griffin is Professor and Department Chair of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Griffin is a world leader in the study of the pathogenesis of viral infections, the viral determinants of virulence, and the host responses to infectionviral pathogenesis. She has elucidated mechanisms that control Sindbis virus neurovirulence, and her pioneering work on measles virus has revealed the bases of the profound immunosuppression caused by measles infection and of the development of severe atypical measles. She was elected both to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences in 2004. She currently serves as a member of the Editorial Board for Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and on the Committee on Defense Intelligence Agency—Technology Forecasts and Reviews. Dr. Griffin holds a Ph.D. and M.D. from Stanford University. Jack R. Harkema is Director of the Laboratory for Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology in the Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, at Michigan State University. He is also Director of AirCARE 1 (Mobile Air Research Lab). Dr. Harkema’s primary research interests are the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of airway epithelial injury, adapation, and repair after exposure to inhaled toxicants. His team is investigating the roles of inflammatory cells and their mediators in the pathogenesis of airway epithelial alterations in the upper and lower respiratory tract after exposure to inhaled xenobiotic agents. He holds a D.V.M. from Michigan State University and a Ph.D. in comparative pathology from the University of California, Davis. He currently has an NIH grant to study mechanisms of species-dependent environmental lung injury and has done research on rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates. Beth L. Laube is Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Her research focuses on the relationship between particulate distribution within the human lung and its response to inhaled allergens, nonspecific stimuli, and aerosolized medications. Her approach involves in vivo quantification of the deposition and removal of particulates in healthy and diseased lungs using radiolabeled aerosols and gamma scintigraphy. Computer analyses of scintigraphic images of the lungs following the inhalation of radioaerosols provide assessments of deposition pattern and mucociliary clearance. These radioimaging assessments can be combined with functional measurements of changes in airway responsiveness to provide a new method for assessing the efficacy of a variety of inhaled medications that are administered to the lung as the target organ or through the lung with the systemic circulation as the target. The principles that are basic to

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61 ABOUT THE AUTHORS this approach are being applied to preventing and treating asthma, cystic fibrosis, dysphagia, and diabetes. Dr. Laube holds a Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She is currently President of the International Society of Aerosols in Medicine and advises the WHO Product Development Group on the aerosolized measles vaccine project. David E. Lenz is Research Chemist and Team Leader at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD). He is responsible for a research program to develop human enzymes capable of acting as novel prophylactic drugs for protection against chemical warfare nerve agents. He also coordinates a molecular biology project for biological scavengers against nerve agents. Previously, Dr. Lenz served as Team Leader in the Biochemical Pharmacology Branch, researching the pharmacokinetics of soman in animals; his was to develop a model to allow interspecies extrapolation of pharmacological data. He serves as Chairman of the NATO Technical Group on Prophylaxis and Therapy Against Chemical Agents and Chairman of an Integrated Product Team for pyridostigmine bromide; and he sat on the Scientific Advisory Panel to the EPA on Cholinesterases. He holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from Boston University. Stephen S. Morse is Founding Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University and is Associate Professor in the Epidemiology Department. He also holds an adjunct faculty appointment at the Rockefeller University. Dr. Morse returned to Columbia in 2000 after four years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense. In that position, he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses and has served as an adviser to the World Health Organization, the Pan- American Health Organization, CDC, FDA, and other agencies. He was the founding Chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, a network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. He currently serves on the Steering Committee of the IOM's Forum on Emerging Infections and was previously a member of other IOM committees. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin- Madison. Robert Franklynn Phalen directs the Air Pollution Health Effects Laboratory at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). He also holds two academic appointments in the School of Medicine at UCI: Professor in the Department of Community and Environmental Medicine; and Professor in the Center for Occupational and Environmental Health. His research is in several areas, including: lung modeling for predicting doses from inhaled particles; lung

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62 DEVELOPING COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST AEROSOLIZED AGENTS morphometry for growing mammals; health effects of inhaled air pollutants; and applied aerosol physics. In 1971, he obtained a Ph.D. in biophysics, with specialization in inhalation toxicology, from the University of Rochester. His postdoctoral research in aerosol physics and inhaled-particle deposition modeling was conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (now the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute) in Albuquerque, N.M. In 1972, Dr. Phalen joined the College of Medicine at UCI to establish the Air Pollution Health Effects Laboratory, which conducts studies relating to the toxicology of air pollutants. He has served on the editorial boards of three scientific journals and as an editor of one. He has published over 100 scientific papers, authored a book titled Inhalation Studies: Foundations and Techniques (CRC Press, 1984), edited another book on a similar topic (CRC Press, 1996), and authored The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002). Dr. Phalen has organized four major international scientific conferences on the health effects of particulate air pollution. He recently received the Public Education Award from the California Biomedical Research Association and the Career Achievement Award from the Inhalation Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences.