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Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents: Appropriate Use of Animal Models
the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) and a D.V.M. from Colorado State University.
Diane E. Griffin is Professor and Department Chair of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Griffin is a world leader in the study of the pathogenesis of viral infections, the viral determinants of virulence, and the host responses to infectionviral pathogenesis. She has elucidated mechanisms that control Sindbis virus neurovirulence, and her pioneering work on measles virus has revealed the bases of the profound immunosuppression caused by measles infection and of the development of severe atypical measles. She was elected both to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences in 2004. She currently serves as a member of the Editorial Board for Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences and on the Committee on Defense Intelligence Agency—Technology Forecasts and Reviews. Dr. Griffin holds a Ph.D. and M.D. from Stanford University.
Jack R. Harkema is Director of the Laboratory for Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology in the Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, at Michigan State University. He is also Director of AirCARE 1 (Mobile Air Research Lab). Dr. Harkema’s primary research interests are the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of airway epithelial injury, adapation, and repair after exposure to inhaled toxicants. His team is investigating the roles of inflammatory cells and their mediators in the pathogenesis of airway epithelial alterations in the upper and lower respiratory tract after exposure to inhaled xenobiotic agents. He holds a D.V.M. from Michigan State University and a Ph.D. in comparative pathology from the University of California, Davis. He currently has an NIH grant to study mechanisms of species-dependent environmental lung injury and has done research on rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates.
Beth L. Laube is Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Her research focuses on the relationship between particulate distribution within the human lung and its response to inhaled allergens, nonspecific stimuli, and aerosolized medications. Her approach involves in vivo quantification of the deposition and removal of particulates in healthy and diseased lungs using radiolabeled aerosols and gamma scintigraphy. Computer analyses of scintigraphic images of the lungs following the inhalation of radioaerosols provide assessments of deposition pattern and mucociliary clearance. These radioimaging assessments can be combined with functional measurements of changes in airway responsiveness to provide a new method for assessing the efficacy of a variety of inhaled medications that are administered to the lung as the target organ or through the lung with the systemic circulation as the target. The principles that are basic to