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Revealing the Hidden Nature of Space and Time: Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics A International Progress Toward the ILC Building on separate regional efforts, several studies to develop a path for ward for the ILC were initiated under the auspices of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA), with the initial technical study issued in 1995. Since then, the ILC concept has successfully passed through a number of key milestones, including these: In August 1999, ICFA issued a statement concluding that a linear collider would produce compelling and unique scientific opportunities, and it recommended vigorous pursuit of R&D on a linear collider. In 2001, the U.S. DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP), the European Committee on Future Accelerators (ECFA), and the Asian Committee on Future Accelerators (ACFA) all issued reports endorsing the linear collider as the next major project that should be undertaken and stating that the project should be international from the start. In February 2001, ICFA asked the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee (ILC-TRC) to assess the technologies for development of the ILC. This panel issued its report in 2003. In February 2002, ICFA established an International Linear Collider Steering Group (ILCSG) to help develop a roadmap for the ILC and to monitor and coordinate R&D activities in this area. Its responsibilities include explaining the intrinsic scientific importance of the project; defining the sci-
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Revealing the Hidden Nature of Space and Time: Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics entific roadmap for the project; monitoring and making recommendations for the coordination of R&D efforts for the accelerator; and identifying models for international collaboration in the construction of the ILC facility. In addition, physicists in Asia, Europe, and North America formed regional ILC steering groups. In 2002, the Consultative Group on High-Energy Physics of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum endorsed an international linear collider as the next major high-energy physics project, to be operated concurrently with the LHC. In the fall of 2003, ILCSG set up an International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP) to select a technology for the ILC. In January 2004, the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technology Policy issued a Ministerial Statement noting the worldwide consensus of the scientific community that an electron-positron linear collider should be the next major accelerator-based facility in particle physics. In March 2004, a special task force of ILCSG reported on a framework for an international organization to develop the design of the ILC. The report recommended the formation of a Global Design Effort (GDE) that would turn the selected technology for the ILC into a conceptual design and then into a design ready for construction. In August 2004, ITRP unanimously recommended that the ILC design incorporate the superconducting radio-frequency technology. This recommendation was immediately adopted by ILCSG and ICFA and has been accepted by the research communities of all three regions. Immediately following the selection of the technology for the ILC, the ILCSC initiated the process for the GDE. In March 2005, ILCSG and ICFA selected a director for the GDE. The director is coordinating activity on the project worldwide, but at present there is no centralized organization. Instead, a worldwide network with regional leaders reporting to the GDE director is being established, along with a work plan for this effort in each region. The budgets of the science agencies in the United States, Japan, and Europe have included, directly or indirectly, R&D activities in support of the proposed ILC for a number of years. For FY2006 the U.S. budget for ILC R&D is about $25 million, with roughly similar amounts being spent in the other regions. The scientific excitement and enthusiasm for the ILC are such that all of the countries have agreed to support continuing R&D for the ILC without a commitment at this time to proceeding with construction of the project.
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Revealing the Hidden Nature of Space and Time: Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics The GDE is working to develop credible estimates for the scope and cost of the project. The credibility of the estimates must be tested though rigorous and transparent reviews by government funding bodies, so that a high level of consensus on the expected costs can be reached. There will need to be an agreed-upon and transparent method for converting these costs according to the different accounting systems of the various national funding bodies, especially since factors such as personnel costs and contingency are treated differently in different regions. In moving toward international bids to host the facility, it will be helpful to have certain agreed-upon elements. While regional documents differ in detail, the following checklist identifies major issues that are common concerns. Legal basis. Due to the size and likely duration of the ILC, the international collaboration will require a durable legal structure. The legal basis for the collaboration could take the form of a treaty or an international executive agreement. It also could take a relatively novel form, such as a special-purpose, nonprofit corporation. Governance structure. The governance structure will set out the rights of the funding nations to participate in major project decisions. Ultimately, the selection of a governance structure will be closely linked to decisions on cost sharing and site. The governance plan needs to define how voting is linked to contributions and how decisions will be reached on, for example, upgrade and/or termination plans. Project management organization. An effective ILC organization requires strong centralized management during both construction and the subsequent operations phase. In particular, the management organization needs to exercise budgetary control and undertake construction management, ongoing site management, safety and security oversight, and personnel management. Personnel management. While the size of the staff and other individuals on-site at any time will depend on the arrangements established for remote users, there will need to be uniform policies for the management of all personnel at the laboratory. In particular, it is important that the host can ensure equity in the treatment of all participants. Cost sharing. The sharing of costs among the funding participants will probably be guided by a combination of a formula approach and extra premiums tied to special benefits. The governments or funding agencies of participating countries will need to agree to this structure. Financial management. Management of finances will be of critical concern to all the participating governments. As a starting point, the ILC project organization will need to establish a set of guidelines for costing
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Revealing the Hidden Nature of Space and Time: Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics the project and the contributions of the participants. This will ensure that all costs have been properly accounted for and that the costs (including in-kind contributions) are allocated on a fair and consistent basis. The ILC project organization will need to establish effective controls over budgeting, procurement, quality control, design changes, and contingency reserves. The ILC organization also will need to ensure that the internationally agreed-upon cash contributions are funded on a timely basis so as to avoid schedule delays and associated cost increases. Finally, the financial management procedures will need to ensure timely and transparent accountability on the financial status of the project to the national sponsors. Procurement strategy. The rules for procurement and relationships with industry vary greatly from country to country. When components are to be built and funded in a particular region, the rules applicable for that region should be applied. Quality control remains a central management concern and must be coordinated even for nationally contributed components. Site selection criteria. The siting of the ILC facility ultimately will be a decision made by senior governmental policy makers, but the process can be facilitated by development of a set of technical and management criteria for site selection. Experimental program management. Plans will be needed for how the experimental program is to be managed and how remote participants will have access to the data and possibly control of the experiments from remote centers, as well as access in terms of visits to the site. Information management and dissemination. The ILC, like the LHC, will generate huge volumes of data. Management of these data and their intellectual content will require special arrangements affecting such issues as data management, intellectual property, and information dissemination. The international nature of the laboratory will require that the data be accessible in a timely fashion to remote users as well as to those at the site. If the United States prepares a bid to host the ILC, the issues listed above will need to be addressed for the bid to have a good chance of success. These issues are not unique to the United States but will also need to be addressed in the bids of other countries.