G
Committee and Staff Biographies

COMMITTEE

James F. Childress, Ph.D., is the John Allen Hollingsworth Professor of Ethics and a professor of medical education at the University of Virginia, where he teaches in the Department of Religious Studies and directs the Institute for Practical Ethics and Public Life. He served as chair of the Department of Religious Studies from 1972 to 1975 and from 1986 to 1994, as principal of the University of Virginia’s Monroe Hill College from 1988 to 1991, and as co-director of the Virginia Health Policy Center from 1991 to 1999. In 1990 he was named Professor of the Year in the state of Virginia by the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education, and in 2002 he received the University of Virginia’s highest honor, the Thomas Jefferson Award. In 2004, the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities bestowed on him its Lifetime Achievement Award. Dr. Childress was vice chair of the National Task Force on Organ Transplantation, and he has also served on the Board of Directors of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), the UNOS Ethics Committee, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, the Human Gene Therapy Subcommittee, the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee, and several data and safety monitoring boards for National Institutes of Health clinical trials. He was a member of the presidentially appointed National Bioethics Advisory Commission from 1996 to 2001. Dr. Childress is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sci-



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Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action G Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE James F. Childress, Ph.D., is the John Allen Hollingsworth Professor of Ethics and a professor of medical education at the University of Virginia, where he teaches in the Department of Religious Studies and directs the Institute for Practical Ethics and Public Life. He served as chair of the Department of Religious Studies from 1972 to 1975 and from 1986 to 1994, as principal of the University of Virginia’s Monroe Hill College from 1988 to 1991, and as co-director of the Virginia Health Policy Center from 1991 to 1999. In 1990 he was named Professor of the Year in the state of Virginia by the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education, and in 2002 he received the University of Virginia’s highest honor, the Thomas Jefferson Award. In 2004, the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities bestowed on him its Lifetime Achievement Award. Dr. Childress was vice chair of the National Task Force on Organ Transplantation, and he has also served on the Board of Directors of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), the UNOS Ethics Committee, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, the Human Gene Therapy Subcommittee, the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee, and several data and safety monitoring boards for National Institutes of Health clinical trials. He was a member of the presidentially appointed National Bioethics Advisory Commission from 1996 to 2001. Dr. Childress is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sci-

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Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action ences. He is also a fellow of the Hastings Center. He received a B.A. from Guilford College, a B.D. from Yale Divinity School, and an M.A. and a Ph.D. from Yale University. Dr. Childress has cochaired the National Research Council Subcommittee on Use of Third Party Toxicity Research with Human Test Subjects and has served as a member of the IOM Committee on Establishing a National Cord Blood Stem Cell Bank Program and the IOM Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks: Issues and Implications for Health. Mary Ann Baily, Ph.D., is an associate for ethics and health policy at The Hastings Center. She received a B.A. degree in mathematics from Harvard University, an M.A. in economics from Northwestern University, and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has served as a fellow at the Institute for Ethics of the American Medical Association, in which she participated in an educational program in ethics and carried out independent research on ethical issues in managed care. Dr. Baily served as the staff economist for the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. She was a member of the economics faculty of Yale University from 1973 to 1979. Dr. Baily’s research interests include access to health care; ethical issues raised by human growth hormone therapy; the implications of human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and Alzheimer’s disease for health care financing; the ethics of improving health care quality and safety; and ethical decision making for the genetic screening of newborns. She is a fellow of the Hastings Center and has been a member of the Ethics Task Force of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Richard J. Bonnie, LL.B., is the John S. Battle Professor of Law and a professor of psychiatric medicine at the University of Virginia and director of the University’s Institute of Law, Psychiatry, and Public Policy. He writes and teaches in the fields of health law and policy; the regulation of alcohol, tobacco, and controlled substances; mental health law and policy; bioethics; and criminal law. He served as associate director of the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, as secretary of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and as a member of two MacArthur Foundation Research Networks in mental health law. He is a member of the IOM and has chaired a number of IOM and National Research Council committees including the Committee on Reducing Tobacco Use, the Committee on Developing a Strategy to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking, the Committee on the Risk and Prevalence of Elder Abuse, the Committee on Injury Prevention and Control, and the Committee on Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research.

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Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action Clive O. Callender, M.D., is the chairman of the Department of Surgery and the LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr., Professor of Surgery at the Howard University College of Medicine. Dr. Callender completed his medical training at Meharry Medical College. In the 1970s at Howard University Hospital, Dr. Callender helped develop the first minority group-directed dialysis and transplant center and histocompatibility and immunogenetic laboratory in the United States. In the 1980s, Dr. Callender developed the D.C. Organ Donor Program, a joint program of Howard University Hospital and the National Capital Area National Kidney Foundation. This initial successful local and regional grassroots minority donation effort (1982 to 1988) was followed by the National Dow Chemical Company Take Initiative Program, a mass media campaign that was directed at minority populations and that involved 50 cities and five historically black colleges and universities. The success of these grassroots and media efforts focused on organ donation in African-American populations set the stage for the conceptualization of the National Minority Organ/Tissue Transplant Education Program, which was funded from 1993 to 2006 by the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases, and the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Dr. Callender served on the IOM Committee on Non-Heart-Beating Organ Transplantation II: The Scientific and Ethical Basis for Practice and Protocols; the IOM Committee on Xenograft Transplantation: Ethical Issues and Public Policy; and the IOM Committee to Study the End-Stage Renal Disease Program. Raul de Velasco, M.D., is a clinical assistant professor of medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Director, Clinical Ethics at the University of Miami Ethics Programs and Chair of the Baptist Health System Bioethics Committee. He served as medical director of the FMC Kendall Dialysis Center for 27 years. He has served as chair of the Florida Society of Nephrology, Baptist Hospital Nephrology Section, and as a member of the board of directors of the Kidney Foundation of South Florida. Dr. de Velasco received his medical degree and nephrology training from the University of Miami. James DuBois, Ph.D., D.Sc., is associate professor, department chair, and director of the Center for Health Care Ethics at St. Louis University. He completed a Ph.D. in philosophy at the International Academy of Philosophy in Liechtenstein and a D.Sc. in psychology at the University of Vienna. His research interests include research ethics in behavioral health, bioethics (with a focus on transplantation ethics), moral development and education, and empirical research on ethical issues. He served for 5 years on the UNOS Regional Review Board for Livers and currently serves on the Mid-America

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Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action Transplant Services’ committee for non-heart-beating organ donation. He is a member of the Ethics Committee and Institutional Review Board at St. Anthony’s Medical Center and St. Alexius Hospital (Tenet) in St. Louis, Missouri. He is a member of the Canadian Forum on Donation after Cardiocirculatory Death. Lewis Goldfrank, M.D., is professor and chairman of emergency medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center. He is the medical director of the New York City Poison Control Center. Dr. Goldfrank served as president of the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine and chaired the American Board of Emergency Medicine’s Subboard on Medical Toxicology. He is senior editor of Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies, a standard text in medical toxicology, the eighth edition of which was published in 2006. Dr. Goldfrank is a member of the IOM and chaired both the IOM Committee on Responding to the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism and the IOM Committee for Evaluation of the Metropolitan Medical Response Systems Program. Sandra Hickey is director of human resources at Georgetown Community Hospital in Georgetown, Kentucky. She is a living kidney donor and is the mother of an organ donor. Ms. Hickey has written and spoken widely on behalf of organ donation efforts. She serves on the State Board of Directors for Kentucky Organ Donor Affiliates (KODA) and on KODA’s Donor Family Council. David Howard, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at the Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University. His research focuses on the use of economics and statistics to better understand medical decision making and its implications for public policy. Currently, Dr. Howard is studying the impact of prognosis on screening and treatment decisions and the role of quality in patients’ choice of kidney transplant centers. In previous research he examined the implications of the “sickest first” rule in liver allocation and the role of patient health in surgeons’ decisions to accept or reject livers offered through the national allocation system. Dr. Howard received a doctorate in health policy from Harvard University in 2000. Danny O. Jacobs, M.D., M.P.H., a specialist in gastrointestinal surgery, is chair of the Department of Surgery at Duke University Medical Center. He has served as chairman and Arnold W. Lempka Distinguished Professor of Surgery at Creighton University School of Medicine and was on the faculty of Harvard Medical School. After earning a medical degree at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, in 1979, Dr. Jacobs received advanced training in surgery at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

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Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action He has an M.P.H. with an emphasis on biostatistics from the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Jacobs’ research interests focus on the effects of critical illness and malnutrition on cellular bioenergetics and the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging technology to study organ function and metabolism. Clinically, his practice covers a range of general and gastrointestinal surgery, with a special focus on nutritional or metabolic diseases amenable to surgical therapy, including inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. Dr. Jacobs is a member of the IOM. Cynda Rushton, D.N.Sc., R.N., is an associate professor of nursing at the Phoebe Berman Bioethics Institute and a clinical nurse specialist in ethics and program director of the Harriet Lane Compassionate Care Program at the Johns Hopkins University and Children’s Center in Baltimore, Maryland. She also holds an appointment in pediatrics in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. She served as the nurse ethicist at the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C. She received a master’s of science in nursing with specialization as a pediatric clinical nurse specialist from the Medical University of South Carolina and a doctorate in nursing with a concentration in bioethics from the Catholic University of America. She has served as the president and the past president of the Association for the Care of Children’s Health; on the Board of Directors of the American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics; and as the co-chair of the Ethics Work Group of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Dr. Rushton received the Pioneering Spirit Award from the American Association of Critical Care Nurses for her work in advancing palliative care across the life span. She is currently chair of Maryland’s Council on Quality Care at the End of Life. She is a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing. David Schkade, Ph.D., holds the Jerome Katzin Chair in the Rady School of Management at the University of California, San Diego, where he teaches negotiation, decision analysis, organizational behavior, and statistics. He has been a visiting senior research scholar in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public Affairs at Princeton University and on the faculties of the University of Chicago, Duke University, and the University of Texas, Austin. Professor Schkade has published on a variety of topics, including his current research interests: the psychology of well-being, loss aversion, and jury decision making. He currently serves on the editorial boards of three major journals and has served on grant review and site visit panels of the National Science Foundation and the Environmental Protection Agency. He received B.A. (mathematics) and M.B.A. degrees from the University of Texas, Austin, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in organizational psychology from Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Schkade has also served on the IOM Committee to

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Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action Evaluate Measures of Health Benefits for Environmental, Health, and Safety Regulation. Debra A. Schwinn, M.D., is the James B. Duke Professor of Anesthesiology and a professor of pharmacology/cancer biology and surgery at the Duke University Medical Centers. She received an M.D. from the Stanford University School of Medicine and completed a fellowship in clinical cardiothoracic anesthesiology at Duke University. Dr. Schwinn has served on the Duke Hospital Ethics Committee and is interested in ethical issues surrounding genetic polymorphisms and their relationship to human disease. Her laboratory examines adrenergic receptor regulation in cardiovascular disease. She was elected to the IOM in 2002. Keith Wailoo, Ph.D., is a professor at Rutgers University with joint appointments in history and at the Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research. He is an historian of medicine and the biomedical sciences and is the author of Dying in the City of the Blues: Sickle Cell Anemia and the Politics of Race and Health, Drawing Blood: Technology and Disease Identity in 20th Century America; a forthcoming book on race and cancer in America; and numerous other works exploring the intersections of medicine and science with society, politics, and culture in America. Previously, he served for 9 years on the faculty in the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and received a Ph.D. in the history and sociology of science from the University of Pennsylvania in 1992. In 1999, he received the James S. McDonnell Centennial Fellowship in the History of Science. STAFF Catharyn T. Liverman, M.L.S., is a senior program officer at the IOM. In her 14 years at IOM, she has worked on studies addressing a range of topics, primarily focused on public health and science policy. Most recently she was the study director for the IOM committee that produced the report Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Other recent studies include Spinal Cord Injury: Progress, Promise, and Priorities, Testosterone and Aging: Clinical Research Directions, Gulf War and Health, and Reducing the Burden of Injury. Her background is in medical library science, with previous positions at the National Agricultural Library and the Naval War College Library. She received a B.A. from Wake Forest University and an M.L.S. from the University of Maryland.

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Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action Emily Ann Meyer, J.D., is a program officer at the IOM. She earned a law degree at Hamline University, where she also served as a research fellow. Prior to coming to IOM, she worked in the Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences’ National Materials Advisory Board. More recently, she was the study director for the IOM committee that produced the report Cord Blood: Establishing a National Stem Cell Bank Program. She is currently directing the study on Evaluating the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Head-and-Face Survey of U.S. Respirator Users. Nora M. Hennessy, M.P.H., is a research associate at the IOM. She earned a B.S. in health resources from George Mason University and an M.P.H. in health promotion and disease prevention from George Washington University. Her previous work experience has included a fellowship with the Office on Women’s Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and positions with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the American Cancer Society. Judith L. Estep is a senior program assistant at the IOM. She has worked at The National Academies/IOM since 1986 and has provided administrative support for more than 35 published reports. Her interests outside the Institute of Medicine include family (11 grandchildren), four-wheeling, and working her draft horses for competition and wagon riding.

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