C
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

LENNARD A. FISK, Chair, is the Thomas M. Donahue Collegiate Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He heads the Solar and Heliospheric Research Group. From 1987 to 1993, he was the associate administrator for Space Science and Applications and chief scientist of NASA. From 1977 to 1987, he served as a professor of physics and vice president for Research and Financial Affairs at the University of New Hampshire. Dr. Fisk is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and he currently serves as chair of the NRC Space Studies Board.


GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, Vice Chair, retired in 1998 after 37 years at the Aerospace Corporation, after serving as a member of the technical staff, department head, laboratory director, vice president, senior vice president, and executive vice president, during which time he made many technical contributions to the development of national security space systems. He is vice chair of the NRC Space Studies Board.


SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS, an astrophysicist, is head of the Solar Theory Section, Space Science Division at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and adjunct professor in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He has served as a postdoctoral fellow at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and as a research associate at Stanford University, and he was chair of the Solar Physics Division, American Astronomical Society (1991-1993). He currently serves on the Space Studies Board.


DANIEL N. BAKER is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and is a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences at the University of Colorado. He is also the director of the Center for Limb Atmospheric Sounding and is a member of the Center for Integrated Plasma Studies. He was formerly leader of the Space Plasma Physics Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory and chief of the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Baker currently serves as chair of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and is a member of the Space Studies Board.


RETA F. BEEBE is a research professor in the Astronomy Department at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. Dr. Beebe manages the Atmospheres Discipline Node of NASA’s Planetary Data System, and she was a member of the Galileo imaging team and lead scientist for the team using the Hubble Space Telescope to provide context images for the Galileo project. She now serves as chair of the NRC Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration and she chaired the Solar System Exploration Survey Panel on Giant Planets (2004-2005). She is a member of the Space Studies Board.


ROGER D. BLANDFORD is Pehong and Adele Chen Professor of Physics and director of the Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University. His research interests cover cosmology, black hole astrophysics, gravitational lensing, galaxies, cosmic rays, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. He served on the 1991 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee Panel on Scientific Opportunities and UV/Optical Astronomy from Space. Blandford is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and he currently co-chairs the NRC Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics and is a member of the Space Studies Board.



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An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff LENNARD A. FISK, Chair, is the Thomas M. Donahue Collegiate Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He heads the Solar and Heliospheric Research Group. From 1987 to 1993, he was the associate administrator for Space Science and Applications and chief scientist of NASA. From 1977 to 1987, he served as a professor of physics and vice president for Research and Financial Affairs at the University of New Hampshire. Dr. Fisk is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and he currently serves as chair of the NRC Space Studies Board. GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, Vice Chair, retired in 1998 after 37 years at the Aerospace Corporation, after serving as a member of the technical staff, department head, laboratory director, vice president, senior vice president, and executive vice president, during which time he made many technical contributions to the development of national security space systems. He is vice chair of the NRC Space Studies Board. SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS, an astrophysicist, is head of the Solar Theory Section, Space Science Division at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and adjunct professor in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He has served as a postdoctoral fellow at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and as a research associate at Stanford University, and he was chair of the Solar Physics Division, American Astronomical Society (1991-1993). He currently serves on the Space Studies Board. DANIEL N. BAKER is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and is a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences at the University of Colorado. He is also the director of the Center for Limb Atmospheric Sounding and is a member of the Center for Integrated Plasma Studies. He was formerly leader of the Space Plasma Physics Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory and chief of the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Baker currently serves as chair of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and is a member of the Space Studies Board. RETA F. BEEBE is a research professor in the Astronomy Department at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. Dr. Beebe manages the Atmospheres Discipline Node of NASA’s Planetary Data System, and she was a member of the Galileo imaging team and lead scientist for the team using the Hubble Space Telescope to provide context images for the Galileo project. She now serves as chair of the NRC Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration and she chaired the Solar System Exploration Survey Panel on Giant Planets (2004-2005). She is a member of the Space Studies Board. ROGER D. BLANDFORD is Pehong and Adele Chen Professor of Physics and director of the Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University. His research interests cover cosmology, black hole astrophysics, gravitational lensing, galaxies, cosmic rays, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. He served on the 1991 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee Panel on Scientific Opportunities and UV/Optical Astronomy from Space. Blandford is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and he currently co-chairs the NRC Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics and is a member of the Space Studies Board.

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An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs RADFORD BYERLY, JR., is a research scientist at the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Colorado. He formerly worked at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (then the National Bureau of Standards), served as chief of staff of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology, and was director of the University of Colorado’s Center for Space and Geosciences Policy. He is a member of the NRC Space Studies Board. JUDITH A. CURRY is chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research interests include remote sensing, climate of the polar-regions, atmospheric modeling, and air/sea interactions. She participates in the World Meteorological Organization’s World Climate Research Program and chairs the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Studies Working Group on Polar Clouds. She currently serves on the NRC Space Studies Board. JACK D. FARMER is a professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at Arizona State University. He previously worked as a research scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center and was a member of NASA’s 2003 Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Steering Committee. His research covers microbial biosedimentology and paleontology, early biosphere evolution, and astrobiology. He currently serves on the NRC Space Studies Board. JACQUELINE N. HEWITT, professor of physics, is the director of MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. She has held positions at MIT’s Haystack Observatory and at Princeton University. Hewitt is a former member of the NRC Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997-2000), the Task Group for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics’ Panel on Galaxies and Stellar Systems (1996-1997), and the Panel on Radio and Submillimeter-wave Astronomy (1998-2001). She is a member of the Space Studies Board. DONALD E. INGBER is the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology in the departments of Pathology and Surgery at Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital Boston. He is also a member of the Children’s Hospital Vascular Biology Program, Harvard Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Harvard-MIT Health Science and Technology Division, Harvard-Dana Farber Cancer Center, and MIT Center for Bioengineering. He also helped found two biotechnology start-ups and has consulted for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, venture capital, and private investment companies. He is a member of the NRC Space Studies Board. BRUCE M. JAKOSKY is a professor of geology and associate director for science at the University of Colorado’s (UC) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. He is also the director of UC’s Center for Astrobiology. He began his Mars research working on the Viking mission to Mars in 1975, and he has been involved with a number of spacecraft missions, including Clementine, Mars Observer, Mars Global Surveyor, and the Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter. KLAUS KEIL is the interim dean for the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology at the University of Hawaii. He has served in the past as director of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, as a professor in and as chair of the Department of Geology at the University of New Mexico (UNM), as director of the UNM Institute of Meteoritics, and as a researcher at the NASA Ames Research Center. He is a member of the NRC Space Studies Board. DEBRA S. KNOPMAN is vice president and director of the RAND Corporation Infrastructure, Safety and Environment (ISE) Division. She is an expert in issues on energy, the environment, water resources, and public administration. She was previously the director of the Center for Innovation and the Environment at the Progressive Policy Institute, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Water and Science at

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An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs the Department of the Interior, a hydrologist at the U.S. Geological Survey, and a staff member for the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee. She is a member of the Space Studies Board. CALVIN W. LOWE is president of Bowie State University, a position that he assumed in 2002 after serving as vice president for research and dean of the Graduate College at Hampton University. Prior to his arrival at Hampton, he served 3 years as chair of and as a professor in the physics department at the Alabama Agricultural & Mechanical University in Huntsville. He is a member of the NRC Space Studies Board. BERRIEN MOORE III is a professor and director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire. Dr. Moore’s research focuses on the carbon cycle, global biogeochemical cycles, and global change as well as policy issues in the area of the global environment. He currently serves on the Space Studies Board and co-chairs the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. Dr. Moore served as chair of the NRC Committee on Global Change Research (1995-1998) and chair of the Committee on International Space Programs (1996-1998). FRANK E. MULLER-KARGER is a professor of biological oceanography, and he directs the Institute for Marine Remote Sensing at the College of Marine Science at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg. Dr. Muller-Karger conducts research on marine primary production using satellite remote sensing, large data sets, networking, and high-speed computing. He was appointed by President George W. Bush to serve on the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, and he currently serves on the NRC Ocean Studies Board. SUZANNE OPARIL is a professor of medicine, physiology, and biophysics and director of the Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program in the Division of Cardiovascular Disease at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). Dr. Oparil has served as president of the American Federation of Clinical Research and previously served as chair of the Public Policy Committee of that organization, where she formulated science policy positions that affect biomedical research at the national level. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and of the NRC Space Studies Board. RONALD F. PROBSTEIN is the Ford Professor of Engineering, emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His career is centered on scientific applications of fluid mechanics, both theoretical and experimental, to numerous areas of conceptual, economic, or societal importance, including hypersonics, rarefied gas dynamics, dust comets, desalination, physicochemical hydrodynamics, synthetic fuels, in situ soil remediation with electric fields, and slurry rheology. He is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and is a member of the NRC Space Studies Board. DENNIS W. READEY is the Herman F. Coors Distinguished Professor of Ceramic Engineering, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, and the director of the Colorado Center for Advanced Ceramics at the Colorado School of Mines. Previously he served as chair of the Department of Ceramic Engineering at Ohio State University, program manager in the Division of Physical Research of what is now the Department of Energy, group leader of the basic ceramics group at Argonne National Laboratory, and a group leader in the research division of the Raytheon Company. He has been a member of the National Materials Advisory Board and is currently a member of the NRC Space Studies Board. HARVEY D. TANANBAUM is director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). He was project scientist for the Uhuru X-ray satellite and served as the scientific program manager for the Einstein Observatory, the first large imaging X-ray telescope. Dr. Tananbaum is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a member of the NRC Space Studies Board, and he

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An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs served on the NRC Committee on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics (1981-1984) and the Committee on the Physics of the Universe (2001-2002). J. CRAIG WHEELER is the Samuel T. and Fern Yanagisawa Regents Professor of Astronomy at the University of Texas, Austin, and past chair of the department. His research interests cover supernovas, black holes, and astrobiology. He has published more than 200 scientific papers, an astronomy text, and a novel and has edited five books. He is a member of the Space Studies Board and served as the co-chair of the NRC Committee on the Origin and Evolution of Life (2002-2005). He is president-elect of the American Astronomical Society. A. THOMAS YOUNG is a retired executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Corp. Mr. Young previously was president and COO of Martin Marietta Corp. Prior to joining industry, Mr. Young worked for 21 years at NASA, where he directed the Goddard Space Flight Center, was deputy director of the Ames Research Center, and directed the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA headquarters. Mr. Young received high acclaim for his technical leadership in organizing and directing national space and defense programs, especially the Viking program. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Mr. Young currently serves on the NRC Space Studies Board. Staff JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, study director, served previously as director of the Space Studies Board (1998-2005), deputy assistant administrator for science in EPA’s Office of Research and Development (1994-1998), associate director of space sciences at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1993-1994), and assistant associate administrator for space sciences and applications in the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (1987-1993). Other positions have included deputy NASA chief scientist and senior policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. DWAYNE A. DAY, Space Studies Board research associate, has served as a study director for an SSB study on the hazards of radiation to human space explorers and has supported several other NRC studies on the NASA workforce, science portfolio, and International Space Station. He has previously worked as an investigator for the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Prior to that, he worked for the Congressional Budget Office and at George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute. CLAUDETTE K. BAYLOR-FLEMING, administrative assistant, has been with the Space Studies Board since 1998, working primarily as the program assistant to the director. Ms. Baylor-Fleming came to the NRC in 1988, working first as a senior secretary for the Institute of Medicine’s Division of Health Sciences Policy, and then for the NRC’s Board on Global Change, where she spent 7 years as the administrative/financial assistant. In 2003, Ms. Baylor-Fleming completed two certificate programs, one at the Catholic University of America in Web technologies, and the other at Trinity College Washington in information technology applications. CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an assistant editor with the Space Studies Board. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Academy of Sciences–Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland.