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16 Nutrient Requirements, Feedstuff Composition, and Other Tables 293

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294 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-1 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Horses (Mature Body Weight of 200 kg)a ADG/ Wt Milk DE CP Lys Ca P Mg K Na Type kg kg/d Mcal g g g g g g g Adult—no workb Minimum 200 6.1 216 9.3 8.0 5.6 3.0 10.0 4.0 Average 200 6.7 252 10.8 8.0 5.6 3.0 10.0 4.0 Elevated 200 7.3 288 12.4 8.0 5.6 3.0 10.0 4.0 Workingc Light exercise 200 8.0 280 12.0 12.0 7.2 3.8 11.4 5.6 Moderate exercise 200 9.3 307 13.2 14.0 8.4 4.6 12.8 7.1 Heavy exercise 200 10.7 345 14.8 16.0 11.6 6.0 15.6 10.2 Very heavy exercise 200 13.8 402 17.3 16.0 11.6 6.0 21.2 16.4 Stallions Nonbreeding 200 7.3 288 12.4 8.0 5.6 3.0 10.0 4.0 Breeding 200 8.7 316 13.6 12.0 7.2 3.8 11.4 5.6 Pregnant Mares Early (< 5 months) 200 6.7 252 10.8 8.0 5.6 3.0 10.0 4.0 5 months 201 0.05 6.8 274 11.8 8.0 5.6 3.0 10.0 4.0 6 months 203 0.07 7.0 282 12.1 8.0 5.6 3.0 10.0 4.0 7 months 206 0.10 7.2 291 12.5 11.2 8.0 3.0 10.0 4.0 8 months 209 0.13 7.4 304 13.1 11.2 8.0 3.0 10.0 4.0 9 months 214 0.16 7.7 319 13.7 14.4 10.5 3.1 10.3 4.4 10 months 219 0.21 8.1 336 14.5 14.4 10.5 3.1 10.3 4.4 11 months 226 0.26 8.6 357 15.4 14.4 10.5 3.1 10.3 4.4 Lactating Mares 1 months 200 6.52 12.7 614 33.9 23.6 15.3 4.5 19.1 5.1 2 months 200 6.48 12.7 612 33.8 23.6 15.2 4.5 19.1 5.1 3 months 200 5.98 12.2 587 32.1 22.4 14.4 4.3 18.4 5.0 4 months 200 5.42 11.8 559 30.3 16.7 10.5 4.2 14.3 4.8 5 months 200 4.88 11.3 532 28.5 15.8 9.9 4.1 13.9 4.7 6 months 200 4.36 10.9 506 26.8 15.0 9.3 3.5 13.5 4.6 Growing animals 4 months 67 0.34 5.3 268 11.5 15.6 8.7 1.4 4.4 1.7 6 months 86 0.29 6.2 270 11.6 15.5 8.6 1.7 5.2 2.0 12 months 128 0.18 7.5 338 14.5 15.1 8.4 2.2 7.0 2.8 18 months 155 0.11 7.7 320 13.7 14.8 8.2 2.5 8.1 3.2 18 light exercise 155 0.11 8.8 341 14.7 14.8 8.2 4.6 9.2 4.4 18 moderate exercise 155 0.11 10.0 362 15.6 14.8 8.2 4.6 10.3 5.6 24 months 172 0.07 7.5 308 13.2 14.7 8.1 2.7 8.8 3.5 24 light exercise 172 0.07 8.7 332 14.3 14.7 8.1 5.2 10.0 4.8 24 moderate exercise 172 0.07 9.9 355 15.3 14.7 8.1 5.2 11.2 6.2 24 heavy exercise 172 0.07 11.2 387 16.7 14.7 8.1 5.2 13.6 8.8 24 very heavy exercise 172 0.07 13.0 436 18.8 14.7 8.1 5.2 18.4 14.1 aThe daily requirements listed in this table for S, Co, I, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn are calculated using assumed feed intakes of 2.5% of BW for heavy and very heavy exercise, lactating mares, and growing horses; 2.25% of BW for moderate exercise; and 2% of BW for all other classes. Daily requirements for Cu are also calculated from assumed feed intakes for adult horses (no work) and exercising horses. bMinimum maintenance applies to adult horses with a sedentary lifestyle, due either to confinement or to a docile temperament. Average maintenance applies to adult horses with alert temperaments and moderate voluntary activity. Elevated maintenance applies to adult horses with nervous temperaments or high levels of voluntary activity. cExamples of the type of regular exercise performed by horses in each category are described in Chapter 1. These categories are based on average weekly ex- ercise. Four categories are given but users should recognize that the nutrient requirements are more accurately described by a continuous function than by dis- crete groups.

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 295 Cl S Co Cu I Fe Mn Se Zn A D E Thiamin Riboflavin g g mg mg mg mg mg mg mg kIU IU IU mg mg 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 6.0 1320 200 12.0 8.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 6.0 1320 200 12.0 8.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 6.0 1320 200 12.0 8.0 18.7 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 9.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 21.3 6.8 0.2 45.0 1.6 180.0 180.0 0.45 180.0 9.0 1320 360 18.5 9.0 26.6 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 200.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 9.0 1320 400 25.0 10.0 37.2 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 200.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 9.0 1320 400 25.0 10.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 6.0 1320 200 12.0 8.0 18.7 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 9.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.0 6.0 0.2 40.0 1.4 160.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.4 6.0 0.2 50.0 1.6 200.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.4 6.0 0.2 50.0 1.6 200.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 16.4 6.0 0.2 50.0 1.6 200.0 160.0 0.40 160.0 12.0 1320 320 12.0 8.0 18.2 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 250.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 12.0 1320 400 15.0 10.0 18.2 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 250.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 12.0 1320 400 15.0 10.0 18.2 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 250.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 12.0 1320 400 15.0 10.0 18.2 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 250.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 12.0 1320 400 15.0 10.0 18.2 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 250.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 12.0 1320 400 15.0 10.0 18.2 7.5 0.3 50.0 1.8 250.0 200.0 0.50 200.0 12.0 1320 400 15.0 10.0 6.3 2.5 0.1 16.8 0.6 84.2 67.4 0.17 67.4 3.0 1496 135 5.1 3.4 8.0 3.2 0.1 21.6 0.8 107.9 86.4 0.22 86.4 3.9 1917 173 6.5 4.3 10.6 4.8 0.2 32.1 1.1 160.6 128.5 0.32 128.5 5.8 2236 257 9.6 6.4 12.8 5.8 0.2 38.7 1.4 193.7 155.0 0.39 155.0 7.0 2464 310 11.6 7.7 14.8 5.8 0.2 38.7 1.4 193.7 155.0 0.39 155.0 7.0 2464 310 11.6 7.7 16.9 5.8 0.2 38.7 1.4 193.7 155.0 0.39 155.0 7.0 2464 310 11.6 7.7 14.2 6.4 0.2 42.9 1.5 214.6 171.7 0.43 171.7 7.7 2352 343 12.9 8.6 16.4 6.4 0.2 42.9 1.5 214.6 171.7 0.43 171.7 7.7 2352 343 12.9 8.6 18.7 6.4 0.2 42.9 1.5 214.6 171.7 0.43 171.7 7.7 2352 343 12.9 8.6 23.3 6.4 0.2 42.9 1.5 214.6 171.7 0.43 171.7 7.7 2352 343 12.9 8.6 32.4 6.4 0.2 42.9 1.5 214.6 171.7 0.43 171.7 7.7 2352 343 12.9 8.6

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296 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-2 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Horses (Mature Body Weight of 400 kg)a ADG/ Wt Milk DE CP Lys Ca P Mg K Na Type kg kg/d Mcal g g g g g g g Adult—no workb Minimum 400 12.1 432 18.6 16.0 11.2 6.0 20.0 8.0 Average 400 13.3 504 21.7 16.0 11.2 6.0 20.0 8.0 Elevated 400 14.5 576 24.8 16.0 11.2 6.0 20.0 8.0 Workingc Light exercise 400 16.0 559 24.1 24.0 14.4 7.6 22.8 11.1 Moderate exercise 400 18.6 614 26.4 28.0 16.8 9.2 25.6 14.2 Heavy exercise 400 21.3 689 29.6 32.0 23.2 12.0 31.2 20.4 Very heavy exercise 400 27.6 804 34.6 32.0 23.2 12.0 42.4 32.8 Stallions Nonbreeding 400 14.5 576 24.8 16.0 11.2 6.0 20.0 8.0 Breeding 400 17.4 631 27.1 24.0 14.4 7.6 22.8 11.1 Pregnant Mares Early (< 5 months) 400 13.3 504 21.7 16.0 11.2 6.0 20.0 8.0 5 months 403 0.11 13.7 548 23.6 16.0 11.2 6.0 20.0 8.0 6 months 407 0.15 13.9 563 24.2 16.0 11.2 6.0 20.0 8.0 7 months 412 0.19 14.3 583 25.1 22.4 16.0 6.1 20.0 8.0 8 months 419 0.26 14.8 607 26.1 22.4 16.0 6.1 20.0 8.0 9 months 427 0.33 15.4 637 27.4 28.8 21.0 6.1 20.7 8.8 10 months 439 0.42 16.2 673 28.9 28.8 21.0 6.1 20.7 8.8 11 months 453 0.52 17.1 714 30.7 28.8 21.0 6.1 20.7 8.8 Lactating Mares 1 months 400 13.04 25.4 1228 67.8 47.3 30.6 8.9 38.3 10.2 2 months 400 12.96 25.3 1224 67.5 47.1 30.5 8.9 38.1 10.2 3 months 400 11.96 24.5 1174 64.2 44.7 28.8 8.7 36.7 10.0 4 months 400 10.84 23.6 1118 60.5 33.3 20.9 8.4 28.7 9.5 5 months 400 9.76 22.7 1064 57.0 31.6 19.7 8.2 27.8 9.4 6 months 400 8.72 21.8 1012 53.5 30.0 18.6 7.0 27.0 9.2 Growing animals 4 months 135 0.67 10.6 535 23.0 31.3 17.4 2.9 8.8 3.4 6 months 173 0.58 12.4 541 23.3 30.9 17.2 3.3 10.4 4.0 12 months 257 0.36 15.0 677 29.1 30.1 16.7 4.3 13.9 5.5 18 months 310 0.23 15.4 639 27.5 29.6 16.5 4.9 16.2 6.4 18 light exercise 310 0.23 17.7 682 29.3 29.6 16.5 9.3 18.4 8.8 18 moderate exercise 310 0.23 20.0 725 31.2 29.6 16.5 9.3 20.5 11.2 24 months 343 0.14 15.0 616 26.5 29.3 16.3 5.3 17.6 7.0 24 light exercise 343 0.14 17.4 663 28.5 29.3 16.3 10.3 20.0 9.7 24 moderate exercise 343 0.14 19.9 710 30.6 29.3 16.3 10.3 22.4 12.3 24 heavy exercise 343 0.14 22.3 775 33.3 29.3 16.3 10.3 27.2 17.7 24 very heavy exercise 343 0.14 26.0 873 37.5 29.3 16.3 10.3 36.8 28.3 aThe daily requirements listed in this table for S, Co, I, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn are calculated using assumed feed intakes of 2.5% of BW for heavy and very heavy exercise, lactating mares, and growing horses; 2.25% of BW for moderate exercise; and 2% of BW for all other classes. Daily requirements for Cu are also calculated from assumed feed intakes for adult horses (no work) and exercising horses. bMinimum maintenance applies to adult horses with a sedentary lifestyle, due either to confinement or to a docile temperament. Average maintenance applies to adult horses with alert temperaments and moderate voluntary activity. Elevated maintenance applies to adult horses with nervous temperaments or high levels of voluntary activity. cExamples of the type of regular exercise performed by horses in each category are described in Chapter 1. These categories are based on average weekly ex- ercise. Four categories are given but users should recognize that the nutrient requirements are more accurately described by a continuous function than by dis- crete groups.

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 297 Cl S Co Cu I Fe Mn Se Zn A D E Thiamin Riboflavin g g mg mg mg mg mg mg mg kIU IU IU mg mg 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 12.0 2640 400 24.0 16.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 12.0 2640 400 24.0 16.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 12.0 2640 400 24.0 16.0 37.3 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 18.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 42.6 13.5 0.5 90.0 3.2 360.0 360.0 0.90 360.0 18.0 2640 720 37.0 18.0 53.2 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 18.0 2640 800 50.0 20.0 74.4 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 18.0 2640 800 50.0 20.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 12.0 2640 400 24.0 16.0 37.3 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 18.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.0 12.0 0.4 80.0 2.8 320.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.8 12.0 0.4 100.0 3.2 400.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.8 12.0 0.4 100.0 3.2 400.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 32.8 12.0 0.4 100.0 3.2 400.0 320.0 0.80 320.0 24.0 2640 640 24.0 16.0 36.4 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 24.0 2640 800 30.0 20.0 36.4 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 24.0 2640 800 30.0 20.0 36.4 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 24.0 2640 800 30.0 20.0 36.4 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 24.0 2640 800 30.0 20.0 36.4 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 24.0 2640 800 30.0 20.0 36.4 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 24.0 2640 800 30.0 20.0 12.5 5.1 0.2 33.7 1.2 168.5 134.8 0.34 134.8 6.1 2992 270 10.1 6.7 16.1 6.5 0.2 43.2 1.5 215.9 172.7 0.43 172.7 7.8 3834 345 13.0 8.6 21.2 9.6 0.3 64.2 2.3 321.2 257.0 0.64 257.0 11.6 4471 514 19.3 12.8 25.6 11.6 0.4 77.5 2.7 387.5 310.0 0.77 310.0 13.9 4929 620 23.2 15.5 29.7 11.6 0.4 77.5 2.7 387.5 310.0 0.77 310.0 13.9 4929 620 23.2 15.5 33.8 11.6 0.4 77.5 2.7 387.5 310.0 0.77 310.0 13.9 4929 620 23.2 15.5 28.3 12.9 0.4 85.8 3.0 429.2 343.4 0.86 343.4 15.5 4704 687 25.8 17.2 32.9 12.9 0.4 85.8 3.0 429.2 343.4 0.86 343.4 15.5 4704 687 25.8 17.2 37.4 12.9 0.4 85.8 3.0 429.2 343.4 0.86 343.4 15.5 4704 687 25.8 17.2 46.5 12.9 0.4 85.8 3.0 429.2 343.4 0.86 343.4 15.5 4704 687 25.8 17.2 64.7 12.9 0.4 85.8 3.0 429.2 343.4 0.86 343.4 15.5 4704 687 25.8 17.2

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298 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-3 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Horses (Mature Body Weight of 500 kg)a ADG/ Wt Milk DE CP Lys Ca P Mg K Na Type kg kg/d Mcal g g g g g g g Adult—no workb Minimum 500 15.2 540 23.2 20.0 14.0 7.5 25.0 10.0 Average 500 16.7 630 27.1 20.0 14.0 7.5 25.0 10.0 Elevated 500 18.2 720 31.0 20.0 14.0 7.5 25.0 10.0 Workingc Light exercise 500 20.0 699 30.1 30.0 18.0 9.5 28.5 13.9 Moderate exercise 500 23.3 768 33.0 35.0 21.0 11.5 32.0 17.8 Heavy exercise 500 26.6 862 37.1 40.0 29.0 15.0 39.0 25.5 Very heavy exercise 500 34.5 1004 43.2 40.0 29.0 15.0 53.0 41.0 Stallions Nonbreeding 500 18.2 720 31.0 20.0 14.0 7.5 25.0 10.0 Breeding 500 21.8 789 33.9 30.0 18.0 9.5 28.5 13.9 Pregnant Mares Early (< 5 months) 500 16.7 630 27.1 20.0 14.0 7.5 25.0 10.0 5 months 504 0.14 17.1 685 29.5 20.0 14.0 7.5 25.0 10.0 6 months 508 0.18 17.4 704 30.3 20.0 14.0 7.5 25.0 10.0 7 months 515 0.24 17.9 729 31.3 28.0 20.0 7.6 25.0 10.0 8 months 523 0.32 18.5 759 32.7 28.0 20.0 7.6 25.0 10.0 9 months 534 0.41 19.2 797 34.3 36.0 26.3 7.7 25.9 11.0 10 months 548 0.52 20.2 841 36.2 36.0 26.3 7.7 25.9 11.0 11 months 566 0.65 21.4 893 38.4 36.0 26.3 7.7 25.9 11.0 Lactating Mares 1 months 500 16.30 31.7 1535 84.8 59.1 38.3 11.2 47.8 12.8 2 months 500 16.20 31.7 1530 84.4 58.9 38.1 11.1 47.7 12.8 3 months 500 14.95 30.6 1468 80.3 55.9 36.0 10.9 45.9 12.5 4 months 500 13.55 29.4 1398 75.7 41.7 26.2 10.5 35.8 11.9 5 months 500 12.20 28.3 1330 71.2 39.5 24.7 10.2 34.8 11.7 6 months 500 10.90 27.2 1265 66.9 37.4 23.2 8.7 33.7 11.5 Growing animals 4 months 168 0.84 13.3 669 28.8 39.1 21.7 3.6 10.9 4.2 6 months 216 0.72 15.5 676 29.1 38.6 21.5 4.1 13.0 5.0 12 months 321 0.45 18.8 846 36.4 37.7 20.9 5.4 17.4 6.9 18 months 387 0.29 19.2 799 34.4 37.0 20.6 6.2 20.2 8.0 18 light exercise 387 0.29 22.1 853 36.7 37.0 20.6 11.6 22.9 11.0 18 moderate exercise 387 0.29 25.0 906 39.0 37.0 20.6 11.6 25.7 14.0 24 months 429 0.18 18.7 770 33.1 36.7 20.4 6.7 22.0 8.8 24 light exercise 429 0.18 21.8 829 35.7 36.7 20.4 12.9 25.0 12.1 24 moderate exercise 429 0.18 24.8 888 38.2 36.7 20.4 12.9 28.0 15.4 24 heavy exercise 429 0.18 27.9 969 41.7 36.7 20.4 12.9 34.0 22.1 24 very heavy exercise 429 0.18 32.5 1091 46.9 36.7 20.4 12.9 46.0 35.4 aThe daily requirements listed in this table for S, Co, I, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn are calculated using assumed feed intakes of 2.5% of BW for heavy and very heavy exercise, lactating mares, and growing horses; 2.25% of BW for moderate exercise; and 2% of BW for all other classes. Daily requirements for Cu are also calculated from assumed feed intakes for adult horses (no work) and exercising horses. bMinimum maintenance applies to adult horses with a sedentary lifestyle, due either to confinement or to a docile temperament. Average maintenance applies to adult horses with alert temperaments and moderate voluntary activity. Elevated maintenance applies to adult horses with nervous temperaments or high levels of voluntary activity. cExamples of the type of regular exercise performed by horses in each category are described in Chapter 1. These categories are based on average weekly ex- ercise. Four categories are given but users should recognize that the nutrient requirements are more accurately described by a continuous function than by dis- crete groups.

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 299 Cl S Co Cu I Fe Mn Se Zn A D E Thiamin Riboflavin g g mg mg mg mg mg mg mg kIU IU IU mg mg 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 15.0 3300 500 30.0 20.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 15.0 3300 500 30.0 20.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 15.0 3300 500 30.0 20.0 46.6 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 22.5 3300 800 30.0 20.0 53.3 16.9 0.6 112.5 4.0 450.0 450.0 1.13 450.0 22.5 3300 900 46.3 22.5 66.5 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 500.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 22.5 3300 1000 62.5 25.0 93.0 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 500.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 22.5 3300 1000 62.5 25.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 15.0 3300 500 30.0 20.0 46.6 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 22.5 3300 800 30.0 20.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 40.0 15.0 0.5 100.0 3.5 400.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 41.0 15.0 0.5 125.0 4.0 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 41.0 15.0 0.5 125.0 4.0 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 41.0 15.0 0.5 125.0 4.0 500.0 400.0 1.00 400.0 30.0 3300 800 30.0 20.0 45.5 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 625.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 30.0 3300 1000 37.5 25.0 45.5 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 625.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 30.0 3300 1000 37.5 25.0 45.5 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 625.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 30.0 3300 1000 37.5 25.0 45.5 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 625.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 30.0 3300 1000 37.5 25.0 45.5 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 625.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 30.0 3300 1000 37.5 25.0 45.5 18.8 0.6 125.0 4.4 625.0 500.0 1.25 500.0 30.0 3300 1000 37.5 25.0 15.7 6.3 0.2 42.1 1.5 210.6 168.5 0.42 168.5 7.6 3740 337 12.6 8.4 20.1 8.1 0.3 54.0 1.9 269.9 215.9 0.54 215.9 9.7 4793 432 16.2 10.8 26.5 12.0 0.4 80.3 2.8 401.5 321.2 0.80 321.2 14.5 5589 642 24.1 16.1 32.0 14.5 0.5 96.9 3.4 484.4 387.5 0.97 387.5 17.4 6161 775 29.1 19.4 37.1 14.5 0.5 96.9 3.4 484.4 387.5 0.97 387.5 17.4 6161 775 29.1 19.4 42.2 14.5 0.5 96.9 3.4 484.4 387.5 0.97 387.5 17.4 6161 775 29.1 19.4 35.4 16.1 0.5 107.3 3.8 536.5 429.2 1.07 429.2 19.3 5880 858 32.2 21.5 41.1 16.1 0.5 107.3 3.8 536.5 429.2 1.07 429.2 19.3 5880 858 32.2 21.5 46.8 16.1 0.5 107.3 3.8 536.5 429.2 1.07 429.2 19.3 5880 858 32.2 21.5 58.2 16.1 0.5 107.3 3.8 536.5 429.2 1.07 429.2 19.3 5880 858 32.2 21.5 80.9 16.1 0.5 107.3 3.8 536.5 429.2 1.07 429.2 19.3 5880 858 32.2 21.5

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300 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-4 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Horses (Mature Body Weight of 600 kg)a ADG/ Wt Milk DE CP Lys Ca P Mg K Na Type kg kg/d Mcal g g g g g g g Adult—no workb Minimum 600 18.2 648 27.9 24.0 16.8 9.0 30.0 12.0 Average 600 20.0 756 32.5 24.0 16.8 9.0 30.0 12.0 Elevated 600 21.8 864 37.2 24.0 16.8 9.0 30.0 12.0 Workingc Light exercise 600 24.0 839 36.1 36.0 21.6 11.4 34.2 16.7 Moderate exercise 600 28.0 921 39.6 42.0 25.2 13.8 38.4 21.3 Heavy exercise 600 32.0 1034 44.5 48.0 34.8 18.0 46.8 30.6 Very heavy exercise 600 41.4 1205 51.8 48.0 34.8 18.0 63.6 49.2 Stallions Nonbreeding 600 21.8 864 37.2 24.0 16.8 9.0 30.0 12.0 Breeding 600 26.1 947 40.7 36.0 21.6 11.4 34.2 16.7 Pregnant Mares Early (< 5 months) 600 20.0 756 32.5 24.0 16.8 9.0 30.0 12.0 5 months 604 0.16 20.5 822 35.3 24.0 16.8 9.0 30.0 12.0 6 months 610 0.22 20.9 845 36.3 24.0 16.8 9.0 30.0 12.0 7 months 618 0.29 21.5 874 37.6 33.6 24.0 9.1 30.0 12.0 8 months 628 0.38 22.2 911 39.2 33.6 24.0 9.1 30.0 12.0 9 months 641 0.49 23.1 956 41.1 43.2 31.5 9.2 31.0 13.2 10 months 658 0.63 24.2 1009 43.4 43.2 31.5 9.2 31.0 13.2 11 months 679 0.78 25.7 1072 46.1 43.2 31.5 9.2 31.0 13.2 Lactating Mares 1 months 600 19.56 38.1 1842 101.7 70.9 45.9 13.4 57.4 15.3 2 months 600 19.44 38.0 1836 101.3 70.7 45.7 13.4 57.2 15.3 3 months 600 17.94 36.7 1761 96.4 67.1 43.2 13.0 55.1 15.0 4 months 600 16.26 35.3 1677 90.8 50.0 31.4 12.7 43.0 14.3 5 months 600 14.64 34.0 1596 85.5 47.4 29.6 12.3 41.7 14.0 6 months 600 13.08 32.7 1518 80.3 44.9 27.9 10.5 40.5 13.8 Growing animals 4 months 202 1.01 15.9 803 34.5 46.9 26.1 4.3 13.1 5.1 6 months 259 0.87 18.6 811 34.9 46.4 25.8 5.0 15.6 6.0 12 months 385 0.54 22.5 1015 43.6 45.2 25.1 6.5 20.9 8.3 18 months 465 0.34 23.1 959 41.2 44.5 24.7 7.4 24.3 9.6 18 light exercise 465 0.34 26.5 1023 44.0 44.5 24.7 13.9 27.5 13.2 18 moderate exercise 465 0.34 30.0 1087 46.7 44.5 24.7 13.9 30.8 16.9 24 months 515 0.22 22.4 924 39.7 44.0 24.4 8.0 26.4 10.5 24 light exercise 515 0.22 26.1 995 42.8 44.0 24.4 15.5 30.0 14.5 24 moderate exercise 515 0.22 29.8 1066 45.8 44.0 24.4 15.5 33.6 18.5 24 heavy exercise 515 0.22 33.5 1162 50.0 44.0 24.4 15.5 40.8 26.5 24 very heavy exercise 515 0.22 39.0 1309 56.3 44.0 24.4 15.5 55.2 42.4 aThe daily requirements listed in this table for S, Co, I, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn are calculated using assumed feed intakes of 2.5% of BW for heavy and very heavy exercise, lactating mares, and growing horses; 2.25% of BW for moderate exercise; and 2% of BW for all other classes. Daily requirements for Cu are also calculated from assumed feed intakes for adult horses (no work) and exercising horses. bMinimum maintenance applies to adult horses with a sedentary lifestyle, due either to confinement or to a docile temperament. Average maintenance applies to adult horses with alert temperaments and moderate voluntary activity. Elevated maintenance applies to adult horses with nervous temperaments or high levels of voluntary activity. bExamples of the type of regular exercise performed by horses in each category are described in Chapter 1. These categories are based on average weekly ex- ercise. Four categories are given but users should recognize that the nutrient requirements are more accurately described by a continuous function than by dis- crete groups.

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 301 Cl S Co Cu I Fe Mn Se Zn A D E Thiamin Riboflavin g g mg mg mg mg mg mg mg kIU IU IU mg mg 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 18.0 3960 600 36.0 24.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 18.0 3960 600 36.0 24.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 18.0 3960 600 36.0 24.0 56.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 27.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 63.9 20.3 0.7 135.0 4.7 540.0 540.0 1.35 540.0 27.0 3960 1080 55.5 27.0 79.8 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 600.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 27.0 3960 1200 75.0 30.0 111.6 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 600.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 27.0 3960 1200 75.0 30.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 18.0 3960 600 36.0 24.0 56.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 27.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 48.0 18.0 0.6 120.0 4.2 480.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 49.2 18.0 0.6 150.0 4.8 600.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 49.2 18.0 0.6 150.0 4.8 600.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 49.2 18.0 0.6 150.0 4.8 600.0 480.0 1.20 480.0 36.0 3960 960 36.0 24.0 54.6 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 750.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 36.0 3960 1200 45.0 30.0 54.6 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 750.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 36.0 3960 1200 45.0 30.0 54.6 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 750.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 36.0 3960 1200 45.0 30.0 54.6 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 750.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 36.0 3960 1200 45.0 30.0 54.6 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 750.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 36.0 3960 1200 45.0 30.0 54.6 22.5 0.8 150.0 5.3 750.0 600.0 1.50 600.0 36.0 3960 1200 45.0 30.0 18.8 7.6 0.3 50.5 1.8 252.7 202.1 0.51 202.1 9.1 4488 404 15.2 10.1 24.1 9.7 0.3 64.8 2.3 323.8 259.1 0.65 259.1 11.7 5751 518 19.4 13.0 31.8 14.5 0.5 96.4 3.4 481.8 385.5 0.96 385.5 17.3 6707 771 28.9 19.3 38.4 17.4 0.6 116.2 4.1 581.2 465.0 1.16 465.0 20.9 7393 930 34.9 23.2 44.5 17.4 0.6 116.2 4.1 581.2 465.0 1.16 465.0 20.9 7393 930 34.9 23.2 50.7 17.4 0.6 116.2 4.1 581.2 465.0 1.16 465.0 20.9 7393 930 34.9 23.2 42.5 19.3 0.6 128.8 4.5 643.8 515.0 1.29 515.0 23.2 7056 1030 38.6 25.8 49.3 19.3 0.6 128.8 4.5 643.8 515.0 1.29 515.0 23.2 7056 1030 38.6 25.8 56.1 19.3 0.6 128.8 4.5 643.8 515.0 1.29 515.0 23.2 7056 1030 38.6 25.8 69.8 19.3 0.6 128.8 4.5 643.8 515.0 1.29 515.0 23.2 7056 1030 38.6 25.8 97.1 19.3 0.6 128.8 4.5 643.8 515.0 1.29 515.0 23.2 7056 1030 38.6 25.8

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302 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-5 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Horses (Mature Body Weight of 900 kg)a ADG/ Wt Milk DE CP Lys Ca P Mg K Na Type kg kg/d Mcal g g g g g g g Adult—no workb Minimum 900 27.3 972 41.8 36.0 25.2 13.5 45.0 18.0 Average 900 30.0 1134 48.8 36.0 25.2 13.5 45.0 18.0 Elevated 900 32.7 1296 55.7 36.0 25.2 13.5 45.0 18.0 Workingc Light exercise 900 36.0 1259 54.1 54.0 32.4 17.1 51.3 25.0 Moderate exercise 900 42.0 1382 59.4 63.0 37.8 20.7 57.6 32.0 Heavy exercise 900 48.0 1551 66.7 72.0 52.2 27.0 70.2 45.9 Very heavy exercise 900 62.1 1808 77.7 72.0 52.2 27.0 95.4 73.8 Stallions Nonbreeding 900 32.7 1296 55.7 36.0 25.2 13.5 45.0 18.0 Breeding 900 39.2 1421 61.1 54.0 32.4 17.1 51.3 25.0 Pregnant Mares Early (< 5 months) 900 30.0 1134 48.8 36.0 25.2 13.5 45.0 18.0 5 months 906 0.24 30.8 1233 53.0 36.0 25.2 13.5 45.0 18.0 6 months 915 0.33 31.4 1267 54.5 36.0 25.2 13.5 45.0 18.0 7 months 927 0.44 32.2 1311 56.4 50.4 36.0 13.7 45.0 18.0 8 months 942 0.57 33.3 1367 58.8 50.4 36.0 13.7 45.0 18.0 9 months 962 0.74 34.6 1434 61.7 64.8 47.3 13.8 46.5 19.8 10 months 987 0.94 36.4 1514 65.1 64.8 47.3 13.8 46.5 19.8 11 months 1019 1.17 38.5 1607 69.1 64.8 47.3 13.8 46.5 19.8 Lactating Mares 1 months 900 29.34 54.4 2763 152.6 106.4 68.9 20.1 86.1 23.0 2 months 900 29.16 54.3 2754 152.0 106.0 68.6 20.1 85.8 23.0 3 months 900 26.91 52.4 2642 144.5 100.6 64.9 19.6 82.7 22.6 4 months 900 24.39 50.3 2516 136.2 75.0 47.1 19.0 64.5 21.4 5 months 900 21.96 48.3 2394 128.2 71.1 44.4 18.4 62.6 21.1 6 months 900 19.62 46.3 2277 120.5 67.4 41.8 15.7 60.7 20.7 Growing animals 4 months 303 1.52 23.9 1204 51.8 70.3 39.1 6.4 19.7 7.6 6 months 389 1.30 28.0 1217 52.3 69.5 38.7 7.5 23.3 9.1 12 months 578 0.82 33.8 1522 65.5 67.8 37.7 9.7 31.4 12.4 18 months 697 0.51 34.6 1438 61.8 66.7 37.1 11.1 36.4 14.5 18 light exercise 697 0.51 39.8 1535 66.0 66.7 37.1 20.9 41.3 19.9 18 moderate exercise 697 0.51 45.0 1631 70.1 66.7 37.1 20.9 46.2 25.3 24 months 773 0.32 33.7 1386 59.6 66.0 36.7 12.0 39.6 15.8 24 light exercise 773 0.32 39.2 1492 64.2 66.0 36.7 23.2 45.0 21.8 24 moderate exercise 773 0.32 44.7 1599 68.7 66.0 36.7 23.2 50.4 27.7 24 heavy exercise 773 0.32 50.2 1744 75.0 66.0 36.7 23.2 61.2 39.7 24 very heavy exercise 773 0.32 58.4 1964 84.5 66.0 36.7 23.2 82.9 63.7 aThe daily requirements listed in this table for S, Co, I, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn are calculated using assumed feed intakes of 2.5% of BW for heavy and very heavy exercise, lactating mares, and growing horses; 2.25% of BW for moderate exercise; and 2% of BW for all other classes. Daily requirements for Cu are also calculated from assumed feed intakes for adult horses (no work) and exercising horses. bMinimum maintenance applies to adult horses with a sedentary lifestyle, due either to confinement or to a docile temperament. Average maintenance applies to adult horses with alert temperaments and moderate voluntary activity. Elevated maintenance applies to adult horses with nervous temperaments or high levels of voluntary activity. cExamples of the type of regular exercise performed by horses in each category are described in Chapter 1. These categories are based on average weekly ex- ercise. Four categories are given but users should recognize that the nutrient requirements are more accurately described by a continuous function than by dis- crete groups.

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 303 Cl S Co Cu I Fe Mn Se Zn A D E Thiamin Riboflavin g g mg mg mg mg mg mg mg kIU IU IU mg mg 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 27.0 5940 900 54.0 36.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 27.0 5940 900 54.0 36.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 27.0 5940 900 54.0 36.0 83.9 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 40.5 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 95.9 30.4 1.0 202.5 7.1 810.0 810.0 2.03 810.0 40.5 5940 1620 83.3 40.5 119.7 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 900.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 40.5 5940 1800 112.5 45.0 167.4 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 900.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 40.5 5940 1800 112.5 45.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 27.0 5940 900 54.0 36.0 83.9 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 40.5 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 72.0 27.0 0.9 180.0 6.3 720.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 73.8 27.0 0.9 225.0 7.2 900.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 73.8 27.0 0.9 225.0 7.2 900.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 73.8 27.0 0.9 225.0 7.2 900.0 720.0 1.80 720.0 54.0 5940 1440 54.0 36.0 81.9 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 1125.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 54.0 5940 1800 67.5 45.0 81.9 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 1125.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 54.0 5940 1800 67.5 45.0 81.9 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 1125.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 54.0 5940 1800 67.5 45.0 81.9 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 1125.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 54.0 5940 1800 67.5 45.0 81.9 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 1125.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 54.0 5940 1800 67.5 45.0 81.9 33.8 1.1 225.0 7.9 1125.0 900.0 2.25 900.0 54.0 5940 1800 67.5 45.0 28.2 11.4 0.4 75.8 2.7 379.0 303.2 0.76 303.2 13.6 6731 606 22.7 15.2 36.1 14.6 0.5 97.1 3.4 485.7 388.6 0.97 388.6 17.5 8627 777 29.1 19.4 47.7 21.7 0.7 144.5 5.1 722.7 578.2 1.45 578.2 26.0 10061 1156 43.4 28.9 57.5 26.2 0.9 174.4 6.1 871.9 697.5 1.74 697.5 31.4 11090 1395 52.3 34.9 66.8 26.2 0.9 174.4 6.1 871.9 697.5 1.74 697.5 31.4 11090 1395 52.3 34.9 76.0 26.2 0.9 174.4 6.1 871.9 697.5 1.74 697.5 31.4 11090 1395 52.3 34.9 63.7 29.0 1.0 193.1 6.8 965.7 772.6 1.93 772.6 34.8 10584 1545 57.9 38.6 74.0 29.0 1.0 193.1 6.8 965.7 772.6 1.93 772.6 34.8 10584 1545 57.9 38.6 84.2 29.0 1.0 193.1 6.8 965.7 772.6 1.93 772.6 34.8 10584 1545 57.9 38.6 104.7 29.0 1.0 193.1 6.8 965.7 772.6 1.93 772.6 34.8 10584 1545 57.9 38.6 145.6 29.0 1.0 193.1 6.8 965.7 772.6 1.93 772.6 34.8 10584 1545 57.9 38.6

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306 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-6 continued DM DE(1) Energy % as Mcal/kg CP Lys Fat NDF ADF Ash Feed Name Class IFN Fed DM % DM % DM % DM % DM % DM % DM Grass Hay, cool season, mature Forage 1-02-244 84.4 2.04 10.8 0.38 2.0 69.1 41.6 7.0 Grass Hay, cool season, immature Forage 1-02-212 84.0 2.36 18.0 0.63 3.3 49.6 31.4 9.2 Grass Hay, cool season, mid-mat. Forage 1-02-243 83.8 2.18 13.3 0.46 2.5 57.7 36.9 8.8 Grass Pasture, cool season, veg. Forage 2-02-260 20.1 2.39 26.5 0.92 2.7 45.8 25.0 9.8 Grass Silage, cool season, immature Forage 3-02-217 36.2 2.30 16.8 0.55 2.8 51.0 32.9 9.9 Grass Silage, cool season, mature Forage 3-02-219 38.7 1.98 12.7 0.43 3.0 66.6 41.1 8.0 Grass Silage, cool season, mid-mat. Forage 3-02-218 42.0 2.16 16.8 0.55 2.4 58.2 35.2 8.7 Legume Forage Hay, immature Forage 1-07-792 84.2 2.62 20.5 1.05 2.1 36.3 28.6 9.5 Legume Forage Hay, mature Forage 1-07-789 83.8 2.21 17.8 0.89 1.6 50.9 39.5 9.2 Legume Forage Hay, mid-mat. Forage 1-07-788 83.9 2.43 20.8 1.06 2.0 42.9 33.4 9.4 Legume Forage Pasture, veg. Forage 2-29-431 21.4 2.71 26.5 1.37 3.7 33.1 23.9 10.0 Legume Forage Silage, mid-mat. Forage 3-07-797 42.9 2.35 21.9 0.97 2.2 43.2 35.2 10.8 Legume Forage Silage, immat. Forage 3-07-795 41.2 2.52 23.2 1.04 2.3 36.7 30.2 11.1 Legume Forage Silage, mature Forage 3-07-798 42.6 2.19 20.3 0.87 2.1 50.0 40.9 10.3 Mix Grass+Leg. Hay, mid-mat. Forage 1-02-277 85.3 2.30 18.4 0.79 2.3 50.8 35.8 9.3 Mix Grass+Leg. Sil., immature Forage 3-02-302 45.9 2.39 20.3 0.78 2.3 45.3 30.8 9.8 Mix Grass+Leg. Sil., mature Forage 3-02-266 42.8 2.07 17.4 0.67 2.3 57.4 42.1 9.6 Mix Grass+Leg. Sil., mid-mat. Forage 3-02-265 44.1 2.25 19.1 0.74 2.5 50.4 35.4 10.1 Mix Grass+Legume Hay, mature Forage 1-02-280 89.7 2.11 18.2 0.77 2.0 56.0 40.1 9.9 Mix Grass+Legume Hay, immat. Forage 1-02-275 83.1 2.46 19.7 0.85 2.5 45.4 30.8 8.8 Mostly Grass Hay, immature Forage 1-02-275 84.3 2.35 18.4 0.72 2.4 49.6 31.5 9.2 Mostly Grass Hay, mature Forage 1-02-280 84.7 2.08 13.3 0.51 2.3 62.5 42.1 7.9 Mostly Grass Hay, mid-mat. Forage 1-02-277 87.3 2.19 17.4 0.68 2.6 55.1 36.4 9.5 Mostly Grass Silage, mid-mat. Forage 3-02-265 44.5 2.19 17.6 0.63 2.9 54.5 35.7 9.5 Mostly Grass Silage, immat. Forage 3-02-302 47.1 2.34 18.0 0.64 2.9 49.9 31.8 9.1 Mostly Grass Silage, mature Forage 3-02-266 38.5 2.01 15.4 0.55 2.6 61.7 42.2 9.0 Mostly Legume Hay, immature Forage 1-02-275 83.8 2.49 20.5 0.97 2.0 41.7 30.5 9.2 Mostly Legume Hay, mature Forage 1-02-280 84.3 2.20 17.2 0.80 1.7 53.6 41.5 8.7 Mostly Legume Hay, mid-mat. Forage 1-02-277 84.2 2.35 19.1 0.90 2.0 47.2 35.4 9.1 Mostly Legume Silage, immature Forage 3-02-302 43.2 2.38 20.0 0.84 2.2 42.2 31.1 11.5 Mostly Legume Silage, mid-mat. Forage 3-02-265 43.3 2.27 19.0 0.78 2.1 47.0 35.4 10.8 Mostly Legume Silage, mature Forage 3-02-266 42.9 2.11 18.3 0.74 2.0 53.7 41.6 10.2 Oats, Hay, headed Forage 1-09-099 85.0 2.16 9.1 0.32 2.2 58.0 36.4 8.5 Oats, Silage, headed Forage 3-21-843 34.6 2.04 12.9 0.46 3.4 60.6 38.9 9.8 Rye, Annual, Silage, veg. Forage 3-21-853 29.7 2.12 16.1 0.38 3.8 57.8 34.9 9.6 Sorghum, Grain Type, Silage Forage 3-22-371 28.8 2.17 9.1 0.24 2.9 60.7 38.7 7.5 Sorghum, Sudan Type, Hay Forage 1-04-480 86.5 2.00 9.4 0.33 2.3 64.8 40.0 8.7 Sorghum, Sudan Type, Silage Forage 3-04-499 28.8 1.95 10.8 0.36 3.6 63.3 40.7 10.9 Soybean, hulls Forage 1-04-560 90.9 2.25 13.9 0.87 2.7 60.3 44.6 4.8 Soybean, Silage, early mat. Forage 3-04-579 40.4 2.26 17.4 0.78 5.7 46.6 36.9 12.2 Triticale Silage, headed Forage 3-26-208 32.0 2.07 13.8 0.25 3.8 59.7 39.6 9.7 Wheat Hay, headed Forage 1-05-170 86.1 2.14 9.4 0.40 1.7 61.1 38.1 6.7 Wheat Silage, early head Forage 3-21-865 33.3 2.11 12.0 0.51 3.2 59.9 37.6 8.6 Fats and oils Hydrol. Tallow Fatty Acids High-fat 4-00-376 99.8 9.12 0.0 0.00 99.2 0.0 0.0 0 Partial Hydrogenated Tallow High-fat None 100.0 9.15 0.0 0.00 99.5 0.0 0.0 0 Tallow High-fat 4-25-306 99.8 9.18 0.0 0.00 99.8 0.0 0.0 0 Vegetable Oil High-fat 4-05-077 100.0 9.19 0.0 0.00 99.9 0.0 0.0 0 aCalculations of energy values are dependent on energy class and are detemined as follows: Concentrates: DE = 4.07 – 0.055 ADF Forages: DE = 2.118 + 0.01218 CP – 0.00937 ADF – 0.00383 (NDF – ADF) + 0.04718 EE + 0.02035 NFC – 0.0262 Ash (where NFC = 100 – %NDF – %CP – %EE – %Ash Fats and oils: DE = (–3.6 + 0.211 CP + 0.421 EE + 0.015 CF) / 4.184

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 307 Ca P Mg Cl K Na S Cu I Fe Mn Se Zn Co % DM % DM % DM % DM % DM % DM % DM mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg VitA VitD VitE 0.47 0.26 0.18 0.66 1.97 0.02 0.17 8.0 180 90 0.06 25 0.72 0.34 0.23 0.42 2.57 0.03 0.24 9.0 199 84 0.06 27 0.66 0.29 0.23 0.92 2.13 0.08 0.24 9.0 194 72 0.06 25 0.56 0.44 0.20 0.56 3.36 0.02 0.20 10.0 275 75 36 0.57 0.36 0.22 0.67 3.11 0.05 0.21 9.0 280 56 0.09 31 0.56 0.31 0.20 0.89 2.42 0.05 0.20 9.0 327 90 0.09 30 0.60 0.36 0.21 0.67 2.78 0.05 0.21 9.0 275 79 0.09 31 1.56 0.31 0.33 0.55 2.56 0.03 0.33 10.0 213 49 0.20 26 0.65 1.22 0.28 0.27 0.48 2.38 0.02 0.23 9.0 250 44 0.20 24 0.65 1.37 0.30 0.30 0.61 2.45 0.02 0.31 9.0 207 46 0.20 24 0.65 1.31 0.37 0.28 0.60 3.21 0.01 0.31 10.0 215 54 0.20 33 0.44 1.36 0.35 0.28 0.61 3.00 0.02 0.28 9.0 395 64 0.18 30 0.65 1.39 0.36 0.30 0.55 3.03 0.03 0.30 9.0 401 67 0.18 31 0.65 1.30 0.33 0.26 0.48 2.87 0.02 0.28 9.0 403 63 0.18 29 0.65 1.04 0.32 0.25 0.80 2.59 0.03 0.24 9.0 197 59 0.12 25 1.08 0.35 0.28 1.77 2.89 0.01 0.16 9.0 328 71 0.14 29 1.06 0.33 0.24 0.52 2.70 0.02 0.31 9.0 262 72 0.14 30 1.09 0.35 0.27 1.10 2.80 0.01 0.26 9.0 252 71 0.14 31 0.97 0.37 0.26 0.93 2.24 0.01 0.28 9.0 403 75 0.12 27 1.20 0.31 0.29 0.50 3.06 0.07 0.27 10.0 160 59 0.12 24 1.01 0.31 0.26 0.74 2.83 0.03 0.28 9.0 117 53 0.09 25 0.73 0.27 0.21 0.71 2.09 0.10 0.29 8.0 124 74 0.09 24 0.88 0.36 0.25 0.77 2.45 0.01 0.27 9.0 358 75 0.09 26 0.89 0.36 0.26 0.45 2.64 0.01 0.25 9.0 264 78 0.11 30 1.02 0.34 0.25 0.74 2.88 0.03 0.27 9.0 234 74 0.11 27 0.85 0.33 0.23 0.90 2.50 0.10 0.34 9.0 241 73 0.11 28 1.30 0.30 0.30 0.60 2.41 0.03 0.20 10.0 167 58 0.15 24 1.09 0.28 0.25 0.21 2.23 0.01 0.26 8.0 141 43 0.15 24 1.17 0.30 0.27 0.43 2.34 0.08 0.26 9.0 141 49 0.15 24 1.16 0.36 0.30 0.60 2.95 0.01 0.32 11.0 279 70 0.17 36 1.14 0.34 0.28 0.60 2.88 0.01 0.25 9.0 244 64 0.17 28 1.17 0.33 0.26 0.60 2.77 0.03 0.26 9.0 339 66 0.17 29 0.37 0.22 0.17 1.08 2.01 0.33 0.14 8.0 250 59 23 0.52 0.31 0.20 1.34 2.89 0.24 0.19 9.0 500 66 29 0.43 0.42 0.16 0.90 3.34 0.05 0.20 9.0 373 63 32 0.50 0.21 0.27 0.60 1.75 0.02 0.12 9.0 392 65 0.03 31 0.54 0.20 0.32 1.16 2.36 0.03 0.13 10.0 284 44 34 0.64 0.24 0.31 0.56 2.57 0.03 0.15 11.0 990 79 33 0.63 0.17 0.25 0.05 1.51 0.01 0.12 10.0 604 26 0.21 35 0.12 1.07 0.37 0.35 0.00 2.25 0.01 0.22 14.0 656 75 42 0.57 0.33 0.19 0.00 3.01 0.05 0.21 7.0 404 66 37 0.31 0.20 0.13 0.38 1.71 0.06 0.13 8.0 319 62 25 0.38 0.29 0.16 0.83 2.28 0.07 0.17 7.0 391 72 27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

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308 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-7 Compositions of Inorganic Mineral Sources on a 100% Dry Matter Basis Primary Crude Protein Mineral International Dry Equivalent (CPE) Element Mineral Element Content Feed No.a Matterb = N% × 6.25 Source Calcium Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Ca (%) Bone meal, steamed, fgc 6–00–400 97 13.2 30.71 Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, fg 6–01–069 100 —d 39.39 Calcium chloride anhydrous, CaCl2, cpe * NAf 100 — 36.11 Calcium chloride dihydrate, CaCl2•2H2O, cp * NA 100 — 27.53 Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, cp NA 100 — 54.09 Calcium oxide, CaO, cp * NA 100 — 71.47 Calcium phosphate (monobasic), Ca(H2PO4)2, from defluorinated 6–01–082 97 — 16.40 phosphoric acid, fg Calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4•2H2O, cp 6–01–089 97 — 23.28 Curacao, phosphate, fg 6–05–586 99 — 34.34 Dicalcium phosphate (dibasic), CaHPO4, from defluorinated 6–01–080 97 — 22.00 phosphoric acid, fg Dolomitic limestone (magnesium), fg 6–02–633 99 — 22.30 Limestone, ground, fg 6–02–632 100 — 34.00 Magnesium oxide, MgO, fg 6–02–756 98 — 3.07 Oystershell, flour (ground), fg 6–03–481 99 — 38.00 Phosphate, defluorinated, fg 6–01–780 100 — 32.00 Phosphate rock, fg 6–03–945 100 — 35.00 Phosphate rock, low-fluorine, fg 6–03–946 100 — 36.00 Soft rock phosphate colloidal clay, fg 6–03–947 100 — 17.00 Phosphorus Sources (DM%) (CPE%) P (%) Ammonium phosphate (dibasic), (NH4)2HPO4, fg 6–00–370 97 115.9 20.60 Ammonium phosphate (monobasic), (NH4)H2PO4, fg 6–09–338 97 70.9 24.74 Bone meal, steamed, fg 6–00–400 97 13.2 12.86 Calcium phosphate (monobasic), Ca(H2PO4)2, from defluorinated 6–01–082 97 — 21.60 phosphoric acid, fg Curacao, phosphate, fg 6–05–586 99 — 14.14 Dicalcium phosphate (dibasic), CaHPO4, from defluorinated 6–01–080 97 — 19.30 phosphoric acid, fg Phosphate, defluorinated, fg 6–01–780 100 — 18.00 Phosphate rock, fg 6–03–945 100 — 13.00 Phosphate rock, low-fluorine, fg 6–03–946 100 — 14.00 Phosphoric acid, –H3PO4, fg * 6–03–707 75 — 31.60 Sodium phosphate (monobasic) monohydrate, NaH2PO4•H2O, fg 6–04–288 97 — 22.50 Sodium tripolyphosphate (meta- and pyro-phosphate), Na5P3O10, fg 6–08–076 96 — 25.00 Soft rock phosphate, colloidal clay, fg 6–03–947 100 — 9.00 Sodium Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Na (%) Bone meal, steamed, fg 6–00–400 97 13.2 5.69 Phosphate, defluorinated, fg 6–01–780 100 — 4.90 Potassium chloride, KCl, fg 6–03–755 100 — 1.00 Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, fg 6–04–272 100 — 27.00 Sodium carbonate monohydrate, Na2CO3•H2O, cp NA 100 — 37.08 Sodium chloride, NaCl, fg 6–04–152 100 — 39.34 Sodium phosphate (monobasic) monohydrate, NaH2PO4•H2O, fg 6–04–288 97 — 16.68 Sodium selenate decahydrate, Na2SeO4•10H2O, cp NA 100 — 12.46 Sodium selenite, Na2SeO3, fg 6–26–013 98 — 26.60 Sodium sesquicarbonate dihydrate, Na2CO3 + NaHCO3•2H2O, fg NA 100 — 30.50 Sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4•10H2O, cp 6–04–292 97 — 14.27 Sodium tripolyphosphate (meta- and pyro-phosphate), Na5P3O10, fg 6–08–076 96 — 31.00 Chloride Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Cl (%) Ammonium chloride, cp NA 100 163.63 66.28 Calcium chloride anhydrous, CaCl2, cp * NA 100 — 63.89 Calcium chloride dihydrate, CaCl2•2H2O, cp * NA 100 — 48.23 Cobalt dichloride hexahydrate, CoCl2•6H2O, cp NA 100 — 29.80 Cupric chloride dihydrate, CuCl2•2H2O, cp NA 100 — 41.65

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 309 TABLE 16-7 continued Primary Crude Protein Mineral International Dry Equivalent (CPE) Element Mineral Element Content Feed No.a Matterb = N% × 6.25 Source Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, MgCl2•6H2O, cp NA 100 — 34.88 Manganese dichloride, MnCl2, cp NA 100 — 56.34 Manganese chloride tetrahydrate, MnCl2•4H2O, cp NA 100 — 35.80 Potassium chloride, KCl, fg 6–03–755 100 — 47.30 Sodium chloride, NaCl, fg 6–04–152 100 — 60.66 Zinc chloride, ZnCl2, cp NA 100 — 52.03 Potassium Sources (DM%) (CPE%) K (%) Potassium bicarbonate, KHCO3, cp 6–29–493 99 — 39.05 Potassium carbonate, K2CO3, cp NA 100 — 56.58 Potassium chloride, KCl, fg 6–03–755 100 — 50.00 Potassium iodide, KI, fg 6–03–759 100 — 21.00 Potassium sulfate, K2SO4, fg 6–06–098 98 — 41.84 Magnesium Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Mg (%) Dolomitic limestone (magnesium), fg 6–02–633 99 — 9.99 Limestone, ground, fg 6–02–632 100 — 2.06 Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, fg 6–02–754 98 30.81 Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, MgCl2•6H2O, cp NA 100 — 11.96 Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, cp NA 100 — 41.69 Magnesium oxide, MgO, fg 6–02–756 98 — 56.20 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, MgSO4•7H2O, fg 6–02–758 98 — 9.80 Sulfur Sources (DM%) (CPE%) S (%) Ammonium phosphate (dibasic), (NH4)2HPO4, fg 6–00–370 97 115.9 2.16 Ammonium phosphate (monobasic), (NH4)H2PO4, fg 6–09–338 97 70.9 1.46 Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, fg 6–09–339 100 134.1 24.10 Bone meal, steamed, fg 6–00–400 97 13.2 2.51 Calcium phosphate (monobasic), Ca(H2PO4)2, from defluorinated 6–01–082 97 — 1.22 phosphoric acid, fg Calcium sulfate, dihydrate CaSO4•2H2O, fg 6–01–089 97 — 18.62 Cupric sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4•5H2O 6–01–720 100 — 12.84 Dicalcium phosphate (dibasic), CaHPO4, from defluorinated 6–01–080 97 — 1.14 phosphoric acid, fg Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4•7H2O, fg 6–20–734 98 — 12.35 Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, MgSO4•7H2O, fg NA 98 — 13.31 Manganese sulfate monohydrate, MnSO4•H2O, cp NA 100 — 18.97 Manganese sulfate pentahydrate, MnSO4•5H2O, cp NA 100 — 13.30 Phosphoric acid, –H3PO4, fg * 6–03–707 75 — 1.55 Potassium sulfate, K2SO4, fg 6–06–098 98 — 17.35 Sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4•10H2O, cp 6–04–292 97 — 9.95 Zinc sulfate monohydrate, ZnSO4•H2O, fg 6–05–555 99 — 17.68 Cobalt Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Co (mg/kg) Cobalt carbonate, CoCO3, fg 6–01–566 99 — 460,000 Cobalt carbonate hexahydrate, CoCO3•6H2O, cp NA 100 — 259,000 Cobalt dichloride hexahydrate, CoCl2•6H2O, cp NA 100 — 247,800 Copper (Cupric) Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Cu (mg/kg) Cupric chloride dihydrate, CuCl2•2H2O, cp NA 100 — 372,000 Cupric oxide, CuO, cp NA 100 — 798,800 Cupric sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4•5H2O, cp 6–01–720 100 — 254,500 Iodine Sources (DM%) (CPE%) I (mg/kg) Ethylenediaminodihydroiodide (EDDI), fg 6–01–842 98 — 803,400 Potassium iodide, KI, fg 6–03–759 100 — 681,700 Iron Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Fe (mg/kg) Ammonium phosphate (dibasic), (NH4)2HPO4, fg 6–00–370 97 115.9 12,400

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310 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES TABLE 16-7 continued Primary Crude Protein Mineral International Dry Equivalent (CPE) Element Mineral Element Content Feed No.a Matterb = N% × 6.25 Source Ammonium phosphate (monobasic), (NH4)H2PO4, fg 6–09–338 97 70.9 17,400 Bone meal, steamed, fg 6–00–400 97 13.2 26,700 Calcium phosphate (monobasic), Ca(H2PO4)2, from defluorinated 6–01–082 97 — 15,800 phosphoric acid, fg Dicalcium phosphate (dibasic), CaHPO4, from defluorinated 6–01–080 97 — 14,400 phosphoric acid, fg Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4•7H2O, fg 6–20–734 98 — 218,400 Phosphate rock, fg 6–03–945 100 — 16,800 Phosphoric acid, –H3PO4, fg * 6–03–707 75 — 17,500 Soft rock phosphate, colloidal clay, fg 6–03–947 100 — 19,000 Manganese (Manganous) Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Mn (mg/kg) Manganese carbonate, MnCO3, cp 6–03–036 97 — 478,000 Manganese chloride, MnCl2, cp NA 100 — 430,000 Manganese chloride tetrahydrate, MnCl2•4H2O, cp NA 100 — 277,000 Manganese oxide, MnO, cp 6–03–056 99 — 774,500 Manganese sulfate monohydrate, MnSO4•H2O, cp NA 100 — 325,069 Manganese sulfate pentahydrate, MnSO4•5H2O, cp NA 100 — 227,891 Selenium Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Se(mg/kg) Sodium selenate decahydrate, Na2SeO4•10H2O, cp NA 100 — 213,920 Sodium selenite, Na2SeO3, cp 6–26–013 98 — 456,000 Zinc Sources (DM%) (CPE%) Zn (mg/kg) Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3, cp NA 100 — 521,400 Zinc chloride, ZnCl2, cp NA 100 — 479,700 Zinc oxide, ZnO, cp 6–05–533 100 — 780,000 Zinc sulfate monohydrate, ZnSO4•H2O, fg 6–05–555 99 — 363,600 Fluorine Sources (CPE%) Fl (mg/kg) Ammonium phosphate (dibasic), (NH4)2HPO4, fg 6–00–370 97 115.9 2,100 Ammonium phosphate (monobasic), (NH4)H2PO4, fg 6–09–338 97 70.9 2,500 Calcium phosphate (monobasic), Ca(H2PO4)2, from defluorinated 6–01–082 97 — 2,100 phosphoric acid, fg Curacao, phosphate, fg 6–05–586 99 — 5,550 Dicalcium phosphate (dibasic), CaHPO4, from defluorinated 6–01–080 97 — 1,800 phosphoric acid, fg Phosphate, defluorinated, fg 6–01–780 100 — 1,800 Phosphate rock, fg 6–03–945 100 — 35,000 Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, fg * 6–03–707 75 — 3,100 Soft rock phosphate, colloidal clay, fg 6–03–947 100 — 15,000 NOTE: The compositions of hydrated mineral sources (e.g., CaSO4•2H2O) are shown including the waters of hydration. Mineral element compositions of feed-grade sources vary by source, processing method, site of mining, and manufacturer. Sources should be analyzed or manufacturer’s analyses should be used when available. Element composition of a source is listed if specific element concentration is ≥ 1.0 percent for macromineral elements, or ≥ 10,000 mg/kg for micromineral elements, except for fluorine concentrations, which are listed because of potential toxicity. aFirst digit denotes the class of feed: 1, dry forages and roughages; 2, pastured, range plants, and forages fed green; 3, silages; 4, energy feeds; 5, protein sup- plement; 6, minerals; 7, vitamins; 8, additives. The other five digits identify the individual feed. bDry matter contents have been estimated for the sources; actual analysis will be more accurate. cfg = Feed-grade source. dNone present. ecp = Chemically pure form. fNA = Not available. *Use caution when handling and mixing, can be extremely hazardous.

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TABLE 16-8 Research Findings on Composition of Mare’s Milk (1989 NRC) Time Number Total After of Solids Energy Protein Fat Lactose Concentrations (µg/g of fluid milk) Foaling Animals (%) (kcal/100 g) (%) (%) (%) Ca P Mg K Na Cu Zn References 1–4 weeks 10 11.6 59 3.1 2.1 5.9 1,212 433 88 773 246 0.46 3.2 Ullrey et al. (1966, 1974) 5–8 weeks 10 11.1 55 2.5 1.9 5.9 1,008 305 56 505 196 0.24 2.5 9–17 weeks 10 10.2 50 2.0 1.3 6.5 661 230 41 388 168 0.22 2.2 1–4 weeks 5 11.1 56 2.3 1.6 6.8 1,223 811 101 586 194 0.62 2.6 Schryver et al. (1986a,b) 5–8 weeks 5 10.5 50 1.9 1.3 6.9 894 596 66 420 167 0.38 1.9 9–17 weeks 2 786 557 49 370 137 0.21 1.8 Oftedal et al. (1983) 1–4 weeks 14 10.9 2.5 1.5 5–8 weeks 14 10.5 2.1 1.4 Gibbs et al. (1982) 9–21 weeks 14 10.2 1.9 1.0 2–12 weeks 22a 10.4 45 2.2 0.8 6.6 1,220 660 Pagan and Hintz (1986) 1–10 weeks 5a 857 418 77 380 127 0.37 1.7 Schryver et al. (1986a) 1–4 weeks 20 0.17 1.8 Breedveld et al. (1987) 5–8 weeks 20 0.17 1.8 1–4 weeks 20 9.8 915 502 85 0.32 2.2 Baucus et al. (1987) 1 week 6a 9.8 3.1 1.6 Lukas et al. (1972) 6 weeks 6a 9.6 2.1 1.4 18 weeks 6a 9.8 1.9 1.8 1–4 weeks 5 11.6 2.5 2.0 1,240 780 Bouwman and van der Schee (1978) 1–12 weeks 28 10.4 2.0 1.6 Meadows et al. (1979) 24 11.2 47 2.6 1.9 6.2 1,179 926 887 203 Neseni et al. (1958) 6-8 weeks 3a 2.1 1.4 6.9 Anwer et al. (1975) 10 3.3 1.6 6.2 Doreau et al. (1986) Reviewb 10.0 2.1 1.3 6.2 1,050 715 685 170 Neuhaus (1959) Day 10 26 11.0 3.1 1.9 6.4 Smoczynski and Tomczynski (1982) Average of 6-month lactation 110 2.0 1.4 6.1 394 29 0.25 0.9 Kulisa (1986) Average of 6-month lactation 10.2 1.9 1.6 6.6 Fedotov and Akimbekov (1983) Average of 6-month lactation 25 2.0 1.6 6.4 Duisembaev and Akimbekov (1982) continued 311

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TABLE 16-8 continued 312 Time Number Total After of Solids Energy Protein Fat Lactose Concentrations (µg/g of fluid milk) Foaling Animals (%) (kcal/100 g) (%) (%) (%) Ca P Mg K Na Cu Zn References Summary 1–4 weeks 10.7 58 2.7 1.8 6.2 1,200 725 90 700 225 0.45 2.5 5–8 weeks 10.5 53 2.2 1.7 6.4 1,000 600 60 500 190 0.26 2.0 9–21 weeks 10.0 50 1.8 1.4 6.5 800 500 45 400 150 0.20 1.8 aPonies. bReview of many studies; values are averages obtained from Neuhaus (1959). REFERENCES FOR MILK COMPOSITION TABLE Anwer, M.S., R. Cronwall, W. E. Chapman, and R. D. Klenz. 1975. Glucose utilization and contribution to milk components in lactating ponies. J. Anim. Sci. 41:568–571. Baucus, K. L., S. L. Ralston, G. Rich, and E. L. Squires. 1987. The effect of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on composition of mares milk. Pp. 179–184 in Proc. 10th Equine Nutr. Physiol. Soc. Symp., Fort Collins, CO. Bouwman, H., and W. van der Schee. 1978. Composition and production of milk from Dutch warmblooded saddle horse mares. Z. Tierphysiol. Tierernaehr. Futtermittelk. 40:39–53. Breedveld, L., S. G. Jackson, and J. P. Baker. 1987. The determination of a relationship between copper, zinc, and selenium levels in mares and those in the foals. Pp. 159–164 in Proc. 10th Equine Nutr. Physiol. Soc. Symp., Fort Collins, CO. Doreau, M., S. Boulot, W. Martin-Rosset. and H. DuBroeucq. 1986. Milking lactating mares using oxytocin: milk volume and composition. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 26:1–11. Duisembaev, K. I., and B. R. Akimbekov. 1982. Variation of milk yield and its relationship with milk composition of mares at a koumiss farm. Sbornik Nauchnvkh Trudov. Kazakhskii Nauchno-Issle- dovatel’skii Teknological Institut Ovtsevodstva (as cited in J. Dairy Sci. 46:1984) (Abstr.). Fedotov, P., and B. Akimbekov. 1983. Increasing milk production of Kushum mares. Konevodstvo I KonnyiSport. (11):6–7 (as cited in J. Dairy Sci. 46:264) (Abstr.). Gibbs, P. G., G. D. Potter, R. W. Bake, and W. C. McMullan. 1982. Milk production of quarter horse mares during 150 days of lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 54:496–499. Kulisa, M. 1986. Some components of mare milk. Paper presented at 37th Annu. Meet. Eur. Asoc. Anim. Prod., Budapest, Hungary, September 1–4, 1986. Summaries, vol. 2. Commission on horse produc- tion (as cited in J. Dairy Sci. 49:806) (Abstr.). Lukas, V. K., W. W. Albert, F. N. Owens, and A. Peters. 1972. Lactation of Shetland mares. J. Anim. Sci. 34:350 (Abstr.). Meadows, D. G., G. D. Potter, W. B. Thomas, J. Hesby, and J. G. Anderson. 1979. Foal growth, milk production and milk composition from mares fed combinations of soybean meal and urea supplements. J. Anim. Sci. 49(Suppl. 1):247. Neseni, R., E. Flade, G. Heidler, and H. Steger. 1958. Milcheistung und Milchzusammensetzung von Stuten im Verlaufe der Laktation. Arc. Tierzucht. 1:91–129. Neuhaus, U. 1959. Milch und Milchgewinnung von Pferdestuten. Z. Tierzucht. 73:370. Oftedal, O. T., H. F. Hintz, and H. F. Schryver. 1983. Lactation in the horse: milk composition and intake by foals. J. Nutr. 113:2096–2106. Pagan, J. D., and H. F. Hintz. 1986. Composition of milk from pony mares fed various levels of digestive energy. Cornell Vet. 76:139–148. Schryver, H. F., O. T. Oftedal, J. Williams, N. F. Cymbaluk, D. Antczak, and H. F. Hintz. 1986a. A comparison of the mineral composition of milk of domestic and captive wild equids (E. przewalski, E. zebra, E. burchelli, E. caballus, E. asinus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 85A:233–235. Schryver, H. F., O. T. Oftedal, J. Williams, L. V. Soderholm, and H. F. Hintz. 1986b. Lactation in the horse: the mineral composition of mare milk. J. Nutr. 116:2142–2147. Smoczynski, S., and R. Tomczynski. 1982. Composition of mare’s milk. I. The first 10 days of lactation. Badania skladu chemicznego mleka klaczy. I. Pierwsze dziesiec dni laktacji. Zeszyty Naukowe Adademii. Rolniczo-Technicznej w Olsztynie, Technologia Zywnosci. 17:77–83 (as cited in J. Dairy Sci. 45:777) (Abstr.). Ullrey, D. E., R. D. Struthers, D. G. Henricks, and B. E. Brent. 1966. Composition of mare’s milk. J. Anim. Sci. 25:217–222. Ullrey, D. E., E. T. Ely, and R. L. Covert. 1974. Iron, zinc, and copper in mare’s milk. J. Anim. Sci. 38:1276–1277.

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TABLE 16-9 Research Findings on Composition of Mare’s Milk (Since 1989 NRC) Time Number Total After of Solids Energy Protein Fat Lactose Concentrations (µg/g of fluid milk) Foaling Animals (%) (kcal/100 g) (%) (%) (%) Ca P Mg K Na Cu Zn References 2–5 d 29 4.1 2.1 953 638 86 709 177 0.25 2.1 Csapo et al. (1995); 8–45 d 29 2.3 1.3 823 499 66 517 167 0.23 2.0 Csapo-Kiss et al. (1995); 10 d 18 9.2 2.3 1.1 Davison et al. (1991)a 30 d 18 9.1 1.7 0.9 60 d 18 8.8 1.5 0.6 1 wk 11 61 2.4 2.5 6.3 1,350 460 Doreau et al. (1990) 4 wk 11 55 2.1 2.0 6.6 1,180 420 8 wk 11 49 2.1 1.3 6.7 970 360 1 wk 10 2.9 1.8 Doreau et al. (1992)a 2 wk 10 2.7 1.4 4 wk 10 2.4 1.2 8 wk 10 2.2 0.7 1 wk 11 53 2.4 1.7 6.2 Doreau et al. (1993)a 4 wk 11 50 2.0 1.4 6.5 8 wk 11 47 1.9 1.1 6.6 2 wk 10 61 3.4 1.9 Glade (1991)a 4 wk 10 58 2.9 1.9 6 wk 10 57 2.8 1.8 8 wk 10 56 2.5 1.8 30 d 18 9.9 1.7 0.4 Kubiak et al. (1991)a 60 d 18 9.6 1.5 0.3 Reviewb 48 2.1 1.2 6.4 Malacarne et al. (2002) 4d 5 58 3.3 1.7 6.4 Mariani et al. (2001) 2 mo 5 44 1.8 0.7 6.8 4 mo 5 42 1.6 0.6 6.9 6 mo 5 41 1.6 0.4 6.9 1–6 mo (Ass) 1.7 1.8 5.9 1,150 730 Oftedal and Jenness (1988) 3–12 mo (Mountain 1.6 1.0 6.9 840 550 zebra) 3–8 mo (Plains 1.6 2.2 7.0 750 530 zebra) 3–12 mo (Przewalski 1.5 1.5 6.7 820 430 horse) 1–6 mo (Pony) 1.8 1.5 6.7 840 530 1 wk 18 1,156 848 117 1,036 355 0.50 3.2 Rook et al. (1999) aAverage of two dietary treatment means. bReview of many studies; average values compiled by authors of citation. continued 313

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REFERENCES FOR MILK COMPOSITION TABLE 314 Csapo, J., J. Stefler, T. G. Martin, S. Makray, and Zs. Csapo-Kiss. 1995. Composition of mares’ colostrum and milk. Fat content, fatty acid composition and vitamin content. Int. Dairy J. 5:393–402. Csapo-Kiss, Zs., J. Stefler, T. G. Martin, S. Makray, and J. Csapo. 1995. Composition of mares’ colostrum and milk. Protein content, amino acid composition and contents of macro- and micro-elements. Int. Dairy J. 5:403–415. Davison, K. E., G. D. Potter, L. W. Greene, J. W. Evans, and W. C. McMullan. 1991. Lactation and reproductive performance of mares fed added dietary fat during late gestation and early lactation. Equine Vet. Sci. 11:111–115. Doreau, M., S. Boulot, D. Bauchart, J. Barlet, and P. Patureau-Mirand. 1990. Yield and composition of milk from lactating mares: effect of lactation stage and individual differences. J. Dairy Res. 57:449–454. Doreau, M., S. Boulot, D. Bauchart, J. Barlet, and W. Martin-Rosset. 1992. Voluntary intake, milk production and plasma metabolites in nursing mares fed two different diets. J. Nutr. 122:992–999. Doreau, M., S. Boulot, and Y. Chilliard. Yield and composition of milk from lactating mares: effect of body condition at foaling. J. Dairy Res. 60:457–466. Glade, M. J. 1991. Dietary yeast culture supplementation of mares during late gestation and early lactation. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 11:89–95. Kubiak, J. R., J. W. Evans, G. D. Potter, P. G. Harms, and W. L. Jenkins. 1991. Milk yield and composition in the multiparous mare fed to obesity. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 11:158–162. Malacarne, M., F. Martuzzi, A. Summer, and P. Mariani. 2002. Review: Protein and fat composition of mare’s milk: some nutritional remarks with reference to human and cow’s milk. Inter. Dairy J. 12:869–877. Mariani, P., A. Summer, F. Martuzzi, P. Formaggioni, A. Sabbioni, A. L. Catalano. 2001. Physicochemical properties, gross composition, energy value and nitrogen fractions of Haflinger nursing mare milk throughout 6 lactation months. Anim. Res. 50:415–425. Oftedal, O. T. and R. Jenness. 1988. Interspecies variation in milk composition among horses, zebras and asses. J. Dairy Res. 55:57–66. Rook, J. S., W. E. Braselton, J. W. Lloyd, M. E. Shea, and J. E. Shelle. 1999. Comparison of element concentrations in Arabian mare’s milk and commercial mare’s milk replacement products. Vet. Clin. Nutr. 6:17–21.

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, FEEDSTUFF COMPOSITION, AND OTHER TABLES 315 TABLE 16-10 Conversion Factors Units Multiplied by equals Units Multiplied by equals Units pound (lb) 0.4536 kilogram (kg) 2.205 pound (lb) ounce (oz) 28.35 gram (g) 0.03527 ounce (oz) gallon, U.S. liquid (gal) 3.785 liter (L) 0.2642 gallon, U.S. liquid (gal) gallon, U.K. (gal) 4.546 liter (L) 0.2200 gallon, U.K. (gal) bushel, U.S. (bu) 35.24 liter (L) 0.02838 bushel, U.S. (bu) bushel, U.K. (bu) 36.37 liter (L) 0.02750 bushel, U.K. (bu) calorie (cal) 4.184 joule (J) 0.2390 calorie (cal) mile (mi) 1.609 kilometer (km) 0.6214 mile (mi) acre (ac) 0.4047 hectare (ha) 2.471 acre (ac) hectare (ha) 10,000 square meter (m2) 0.0001 hectare (ha) ppm 1 mg/kg 1 ppm ppm 1 µg/g 1 ppm ppm 0.0001 % 10,000 ppm Prefixes for the International System of Units (SI) Fahrenheit to Celsius (Centigrade) Conversions Units Greater Than the Standard Unit Fahrenheit Celsius To convert from standard 110 43.3 Item Prefix unit multiply bya 105 40.6 100 37.8 G giga 1,000,000,000 95 35.0 M mega 1,000,000 90 32.2 k kilo 1,000 85 29.4 80 26.7 Units Less Than the Standard Unit 75 23.9 70 21.1 To convert from standard 65 18.3 Item Prefix unit divide byb 60 15.6 55 12.8 d deci 10 50 10.0 c centi 100 45 7.2 m milli 1,000 40 4.4 µ micro 1,000,000 35 1.7 n nano 1,000,000,000 30 –1.1 aFor example, 1 kg (kilogram) = 1 g multiplied by 1,000 = 1,000 g. 25 –3.9 bFor example, 1 mg (milligram) = 1 g divided by 1,000 = 1/1,000 g. 20 –6.7 15 –9.4 10 –12.2 5 –15.0 0 –17.8 –5 –20.6 –10 –23.3 –15 –26.1 –20 –28.9 –25 –31.7 –30 –34.4 –35 –37.2 –40 –40.0

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