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Appendix B Abbreviations and Acronyms 3MH 3-methylhistidine CF Crude fiber AACC American Association of Cereal CFR Code of Federal Regulations Chemists CHO-F Fermentable carbohydrates AAFCO Association of American Feed Control CHO-FR Rapidly fermentable carbohydrates Officials CHO-FS Slowly fermentable carbohydrates ADF Acid detergent fiber CHO-H Hydrolyzable carbohydrates measured by ADFCP Acid detergent insoluble protein direct methods (sugars + starch) ADFN Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen CK Creatine kinase ADG Average daily gain CP Crude protein ADICP Acid detergent insoluble crude protein CS Condition score; citrate synthase ADIN Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen CSM Cottonseed meal ADL Acid detergent lignin CSREES Cooperative State Research, Education, ADP Adenosine diphosphate and Extension Service AEE Acid ether extract CT Calcitonin AIA Acid insoluble ash CTVM Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine ALD Angular limb deformities CV Coefficient of variation aNDF Neutral detergent fiber treated with CW Cultivator for weeding amylase and sulfite solutions Da Apparent digestibility ANZECC Australian and New Zealand DAK Disney’s Animal Kingdom Environment and Conservation DCAD Dietary cation-anion difference AOAC Association of Official Analytical DCP Digestible crude protein Chemists DE Digestible energy AOCS American Oil Chemists Society DEm Digestible energy for maintenance AP Available protein DFM Direct fed microbials ATP Adenosine triphosphate DHA Docosahexaenoic acid AVDMI Average voluntary dry matter intake DM Dry matter AZA American Zoo and Aquarium Association DMD Dry matter digestibility BALF Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid DMI Dry matter intake BCAA Branch chain amino acids DNER Daily net energy requirement BCS Body condition score DOD Developmental orthopedic disease BDG Brewer’s dried grains DON Deoxynivalenol BHA Butylated hydroxyanisole DP Digestible protein; degree of BHT Butylated hydroxytoluene polymerization BW Body weight DSHEA Dietary Supplement Health and CAST Council for Agricultural Science and Education Act Technology Dt True digestibility CCME Canadian Council of Ministers of the EAAP European Association for Animal Environment Production 319

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320 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES ECF Extracellular fluid HYPP Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis EDDI Ethylenediaminedihydroiodide ICF Intracellular fluid EDM Equine degenerative IE Intake energy myeloencephalopathy IGF-I Insulin-like growth factor I EE Ether extract IgG Immunoglobulin G EFA Essential fatty acid INRA L’Institut National de la Recherche EGUS Equine gastric ulcer syndrome Agronomique ELF Epithelial lining fluid ISIS International Species Inventory Systems EMND Equine motor neuron disease IU International units ENSAM Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie Agro IVDMD In vitro dry matter digestibility Montpellier JAVMA Journal of the American Veterinary EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid Medical Association EPM Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis K1 Phylloquinone EPSM Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy K2 Menaquinone ER Exertional rhabdomyolysis K3 Menadione EU Enzyme units LC Light cart FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide LCT Lower critical temperature FAO/WHO Food and Agriculture Organization/ LD50 Lethal dose that kills 50% World Health Organization LE Lactation energy FDA Food and Drug Administration LH Luteinizing hormone FE Fecal energy LPL Lipoprotein lipase FE test Urinary fractional electrolyte excretion LPS Lipopolysaccharide test MADC Matières Azotées Digestibles Cheval FFA Free fatty acids MCT Medium-chain triglycerides FMN Flavin mononucleotide ME Metabolizable energy FOS Fructooligosaccharides MEm Metabolizable energy for maintenance FSH Follicle stimulating hormone MG Muscle gain FTU Phytase unit MRT Mean retention time GAG Glycosaminoglycan MSM Methylsulfonylmethane GC Gas chromatography MuFA Monounsaturated fatty acid GE Gross energy NAD Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide GEH Gesellschaft fur Ernahrungsphysiologie NADP Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide der Haustiere phosphate GH Growth hormone ND Not detectable GI Glycemic index NDF Neutral detergent fiber GLUT Glucose transporter NDICP Neutral detergent insoluble crude protein GLUT-4 Glucose transporter-4 NDIN Neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen GnRH Gonadotropin releasing hormone (protein) GRAS Generally recognized as safe NDSC Neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates GSH-px Glutathione peroxidase NDSF Neutral detergent soluble fiber HAD β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase NE Net energy HcE Heat of thermal regulation NEm Net energy for maintenance HdE Heat of digestion and absorption NEr Recovered energy HE Heat energy NEW Net energy used for work HeE Heat associated with basal metabolism NFC Nonfibrous carbohydrates HfE Heat of fermentation NFE Nitrogen-free extract HiE Heat increment NFTA National Forage Testing Association HjE Heat associated with voluntary activity NIR Near infrared reflectance HPLC High performance liquid chromatography NIRS Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy HR Heart rate in beats per minute NMD Nutritional muscular dystrophy HrE Heat associated with product formation NPN Nonprotein nitrogen HSCAS Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate NRC National Research Council HSL Hormone sensitive lipase NSC Nonstructural carbohydrates HwE Heat associated with waste formation NSH Nutritional secondary and excretion hyperparathyroidism

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APPENDIX B 321 NSP Nonstarch polysaccharides SZA Sodium zeolite A OC Osteochondrosis T3 Triiodothyronine OCD Osteochondrosis dissecans T4 Thyroxin OM Organic matter TAG Triglyceride (triacylglycerol) OMD Organic matter digestibility TBAR Thiobarbiturate reactive substances PM 2.5 Particulate matter with fine particles less TBHQ Tertiary butyl hydroquinone than 2.5 micrometers in diameter TBW Total body water PMU Pregnant mares’ urine TDF Total dietary fiber PSSM Polysaccharide storage myopathy TDN Total digestible nutrients PTH Parathyroid hormone TDS Total dissolved solids PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid TE Tissue energy PUN Plasma urea nitrogen TMR Total mixed ration PV Plasma volume TNC Total nonstructural carbohydrates RAO Recurrent airway obstruction TNZ Thermoneutral zone RBP Retinol binding protein TRH Thyroid releasing hormone RDR Relative dose response test TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone RE Recovered energy TSS Total soluble salts RER Respiratory exchange ratio; recurrent TZ Toronto Zoo exertional rhabdomylosis UCT Upper critical temperature RH Relative humidity UE Urinary energy ROS Reactive oxygen species UFC Unite Fourragere Cheval (horse SAS Statistical Analysis System feed unit) SBM Soybean meal VDMI Voluntary dry matter intake SC Structural carbohydrates VE Hair energy SDF Soluble dietary fiber VFA Volatile fatty acid SE Standard error VFI Voluntary feed intake SET Standard exercise test VO2 Oxygen consumption SFA Saturated fatty acid VO2max Maximum volume of oxygen SL Sweat loss WSC Water soluble carbohydrates SPAOPD Summer pasture-associated obstructive YE Conceptus energy pulmonary disease ZSSD Zoological Society of San Diego

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