care, with an emphasis on first response at the time of the emergency. NEMA grants provide funding to hospitals, health clinics, trauma centers, fire departments, and physicians. Awards go to small, underfunded rural organizations as well as to well-established entities (NEMA, 2003).

For pediatric emergency medicine research, there are additional associations and foundations that may provide financial support. The American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP) Section on Emergency Medicine offers a young investigator award of $10,000 for a research project that addresses issues pertinent to the acutely ill or injured child. It also offers several awards that recognize individuals who have made significant contributions to research in pediatric emergency medicine (AAP, 2003). The Ambulatory Pediatric Association, an organization of academic pediatric health professionals, offers a young investigator grant that provides up to $10,000 per project to new investigators for research in a number of areas, including pediatric emergency medicine (Christakis et al., 2001). Finally, researchers seeking funding for relatively small projects may be able to obtain it from their local tertiary pediatric referral center (Havel, 2004).


Industry

Industry or corporate funding constitutes a small source of support for clinical research in pediatric emergency care. The biomedical industry provides some funding for emergency medicine research, particularly evaluations of new drugs or medical devices. Emergency medicine physicians are in a good position to conduct this work since the ED is the initial site of diagnosis and treatment for many illnesses. This makes it an ideal setting for clinical trials of time-critical pharmaceutical agents, diagnostics, and medical devices (Morris and Manning, 2004).

is heavily focused on the development of clinical skills, with little time for formal training in research methodology (Biros et al., 1998). Clinical fellowships are more numerous and more likely to be funded than research fellowships. In 2003, only 12 percent of fellowships in the SAEM listing appeared to have a primary research focus, and only about 70 percent of those positions were filled. None were backed by federal funding from NIH or other agencies. In addition, only 11 percent of the advertised fellowships offered an advanced degree, such as a PhD, MS, or MPH, during the course of fellowship training, although others may offer that option (Pollack et al., 2003).

While some clinical fellowships have a research component, a research training program that does not include 2 years of dedicated research training (e.g., greater than 80 percent research time) is unlikely to result in long-term



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