human genetics at Johns Hopkins. He joined NIH in 1986 where he held senior research positions including head of Recombinant Protein Development Unit, head of Malaria Vaccine Development Unit and head of the Molecular Vaccine Section in the Laboratory of Malaria Research. From 1999 he was senior director of vaccine research and then head of the Department of Vaccine Research and Technology at Merck & Co. Dr. Kaslow is the author or coauthor of 122 scientific papers and 22 review articles/book chapters, and holds or coholds 13 patents.

MARGARET A. LIU, M.D., is vice chair of Transgene, SA and a visiting professor at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. She is a pioneer in the area of DNA vaccines, author or coauthor of 128 publications and the inventor for six issued patents. She was formerly the senior adviser in vaccinology for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, vice-president of vaccines research and gene therapy at Chiron Corporation, and senior director of virus and cell biology at Merck & Co. She is currently chair of the Scientific Advisory Group of the International Vaccine Institute (in Seoul) and a scientific advisor for the AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition. She is also a former member of the European Developing Country Clinical Trials Partnership Board (based in The Hague), the WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research Vaccine Advisory Committee, and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization R&D Task Force during its tenure. Dr. Liu received her B.A. (summa cum laude) in chemistry from Colorado College and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Dr. Liu was named one of “The 50 Most Important Women Scientists” by Discover magazine in November 2002.

GARY J. NABEL, M.D., Ph.D., is director of the Vaccine Research Center at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH. Prior to this appointment in 1999, he was professor of internal medicine and of biological chemistry at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. Dr. Nabel’s expertise is in the area of viral gene expression, vaccines and gene transfer therapy. He has made important contributions to knowledge of gene regulation and immune system activation in the HIV virus, and to DNA-based vaccine research for HIV and other diseases. Dr. Nabel graduated magna cum laude from Harvard and completed the M.D./Ph.D. program there in 1982. His subsequent positions include director of the Center for Gene Therapy and co-director of the Center for Molecular Medicine at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. He has received the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Amgen Scientific Achievement award and has served on several NIH advisory committees

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