a Records for the Confederate forces were difficult to find (probably not kept). One example in South Carolina was 42,000 cases in 18 months in 1862–1863. (Malaria was endemic in the United States until the late 1940s).
b 1913 malaria rate drop was due to control measures enforced by Colonel Gorgas.
c Malaria rate for troops training and/or garrisoned in southern states.
d In troops returning home there were at one point 629 cases/week.
e Some operational areas were intense: Ia Drang Valley (1966) malaria rate 600/1000/year, equivalent of 2 maneuver battalions rendered inoperative.
f In Bardera in 1993 where malaria is hyperendemic: 53/490 cases in Marines.
g Attack rate (June–September 2002) 52.4/1000/year.