Location

Year

Threat

Morbidity and Mortality

Korean War

1950–1953

P. vivax

Malaria rate 611/1000/year

3000 cases in troops returning to United Statesd

Vietnam War

1962–1975

P. falciparum, P. vivax

100,000 casese

1.7/1000 case fatality rate

Hospital admissions 27/1000/year

1965 malaria rate for U.S. Army forces: 98/1000/year

1970: 2222 cases (mostly P. vivax) treated in United States

Panama

1988–1989

P. falciparum

Action primarily in Panama City

Persian Gulf

1991

P. vivax

Few cases in northern Iraq, Kurdish area

Somalia

1992–1994

P. falciparum,

P. vivax

48 cases; 243 cases in forces on return homef

(CDC, 1993)

Nigeria

2001

Chloroquine- resistant

P. falciparum

Special forces 7 cases (2 deaths) in 300 men

Afghanistan

2003

P. vivax, chloroquine- resistant

P. falciparum

8 cases in 725 Ranger task force membersg

(Kotwal et al., 2005)

Liberia

2003

P. falciparum

U.S. marines 80/290 (28% attack rate) with 40 Marines evacuated by air to Germany

Iraq War

2003–

P. vivax

Few cases

a Records for the Confederate forces were difficult to find (probably not kept). One example in South Carolina was 42,000 cases in 18 months in 1862–1863. (Malaria was endemic in the United States until the late 1940s).

b 1913 malaria rate drop was due to control measures enforced by Colonel Gorgas.

c Malaria rate for troops training and/or garrisoned in southern states.

d In troops returning home there were at one point 629 cases/week.

e Some operational areas were intense: Ia Drang Valley (1966) malaria rate 600/1000/year, equivalent of 2 maneuver battalions rendered inoperative.

f In Bardera in 1993 where malaria is hyperendemic: 53/490 cases in Marines.

g Attack rate (June–September 2002) 52.4/1000/year.



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