6
Description of Epidemiologic Studies Included in Evidentiary Dataset

COHORT STUDIES

Reports Included in the Evaluation of Cancer Risks

Table 6.1 delineates the 40 main cohort populations that passed the committee’s primary eligibility criteria and were found to contain usable information on the risk of cancer at one or more of the sites of interest for this review. Some of the cohorts contained subpopulations (such as men and women) whose results were reported separately. Furthermore, tracking of multiple aspects of the health over decades in many of the cohort populations has resulted in numerous published analyses. Among these, this committee was interested in the most complete, and thus usually the most recent, citation addressing cancer incidence or mortality. Specific citations contributing information to this review are given in the rightmost column. In some instances, different publications provided the most complete information on a given subpopulation or cancer site, so more than one citation may have served as a source of evidence on a single main cohort population. Table B.1 in Appendix B provides more detail about the overall history (such as updates and the nature of asbestos to which the subjects were exposed) of each studied population on a citation-specific basis; boldface indicates particular citations that were the source of evidence abstracted for any of the cancer sites under consideration.

Table 6.2 presents results observed in the informative cohort populations with regard to the recognized asbestos-related health effects: asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Those findings provide a rough indication



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6 Description of Epidemiologic Studies Included in Evidentiary Dataset COHORT STUDIES Reports Included in the Evaluation of Cancer Risks Table 6.1 delineates the 40 main cohort populations that passed the committee’s primary eligibility criteria and were found to contain usable information on the risk of cancer at one or more of the sites of interest for this review. Some of the cohorts contained subpopulations (such as men and women) whose results were reported separately. Furthermore, tracking of multiple aspects of the health over decades in many of the cohort popu- lations has resulted in numerous published analyses. Among these, this com- mittee was interested in the most complete, and thus usually the most re- cent, citation addressing cancer incidence or mortality. Specific citations contributing information to this review are given in the rightmost column. In some instances, different publications provided the most complete infor- mation on a given subpopulation or cancer site, so more than one citation may have served as a source of evidence on a single main cohort popula- tion. Table B.1 in Appendix B provides more detail about the overall his- tory (such as updates and the nature of asbestos to which the subjects were exposed) of each studied population on a citation-specific basis; boldface indicates particular citations that were the source of evidence abstracted for any of the cancer sites under consideration. Table 6.2 presents results observed in the informative cohort populations with regard to the recognized asbestos-related health effects: asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Those findings provide a rough indication 104

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TABLE 6.1 Description of Cohorts Informative for Selected Cancers Results for Selected Cancers (ICD range specified; mortality unless otherwise noted) Cohort Population (location— number, description) Pharynx Larynx Esophagus Stomach Colon Rectum Source Citation Patients with Asbestos-Related Disease 1. Italy—631 women 161 151 153 154 Germani et al. (1999) compensated for asbestosis 2. Finland— 161 ? 150 ? 151 ? 153 ? 154 ? Karjalainen et al. a. 1,376 asbestosis (1999) patients b. 4,887 patients with pleural disease 3. Poland— 161 150 151 153 154 Szeszenia-Dabrowska a. 907 men with et al. (2002) asbestosis b. 490 women with asbestosis 4. US clinical trial monitoring asbestos- exposed men 153-154 ? Aliyu et al. (2005) continues 105

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TABLE 6.1 Continued 106 Results for Selected Cancers (ICD range specified; mortality unless otherwise noted) Cohort Population (location— number, description) Pharynx Larynx Esophagus Stomach Colon Rectum Source Citation Mining 5. Wittenoom Gorge, 140-149, 161 ? 150 ? 151 ? 152-154 ? Armstrong et al. Western Australia 160 ? (1988) [mortality to 1980] C09.0-C14.8 C32.0-C32.9 C15.0-C15.9 C16.0-C16.9 C18.0-C20.9 Reid et al. (2004) [incidence 1979-2000] 6. Quebec, Canada— 161 150 151 152-154 McDonald et al. Asbestos and Thetford (1993) [through 1976–1988] Mines 161 #150 151 #152-154 Liddell et al. (1997) [through 1950–1992] 7. Finland—Paakkila and 161 ? 150 ? 151 ? 153-154 ? Meurman et al. Maljasalmi mines (1994) 8. Balangero, Italy 140-149 ? 161 150-151 ? 152-154 ? Piolatto et al. (1990) 9. Northern Transvaal, 140-149 161 #150 #151 #153 #154 Sluis-Cremer et al. South Africa—North West (1992) Cape Blue and Penge Mines 10. Libby, MT, US— 151 Amandus and NIOSH sample Wheeler (1987)

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Insulation Manufacture/ Insulators (Laggers) 11. Canada/USA a. 632 male insulation 140-149, 150 ? 151 ? 153-154 ? Selikoff et al. (1979) workers before 1943 in 161 ? [through 1976] NY and NJ, US b. Paterson, NJ, 140-149, 150 ? 151 ? 153-154 ? Seidman et al. (1986) US—820 men 161 ? producing amosite asbestos insulation for shipbuilding c. 17,800 male members 146 ? 161 150 151 153-154 Selikoff and Seidman of asbestos insulation (1991) [through 1986] unions in 1967 12. Uxbridge, UK—Cape 150 151 153 154 Acheson et al. (1984) [insulation] Boards Plant 13. East London, UK—1,400 140-148 161 150 151 153 154 Berry et al. (2000) male laggers (a) (subgroups b and c make up population 32) 14. Tyler, TX, US—753 140-149 161 150 151 153 154 Levin et al. (1998) white male asbestos pipe- insulation plant workers continues 107

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TABLE 6.1 Continued 108 Results for Selected Cancers (ICD range specified; mortality unless otherwise noted) Cohort Population (location— number, description) Pharynx Larynx Esophagus Stomach Colon Rectum Source Citation Asbestos Textile Workers 15. Italy—889 male and 1,077 140-149 161 151 152-154, Pira et al. (2005) female textile workers 159.0 16. Rochdale, Northern 161 ? 150 ? 151 ? 153-154 ? Peto et al. (1985) England 17. Charleston, SC, US— 161 151 Dement et al. (1994) asbestos-textile workers [through 1990] Asbestos Cement 18. Denmark—Danish Eternit 140-148 161 151 153 154 Raffn et al. (1989) Ltd. cement factory [incidence through 1984] 153 154 Raffn et al. (1996) [incidence through 1990] 19. Emilia Romagna, Italy— 140-149 ? 161 Giaroli et al. (1994) 10 cement factories 20. Casale Monferrato, Italy— 161 ? 151 ? 153-154 ? Botta et al. (1991) asbestos-cement production 21. Lithuainia—Daugeliai and 161 151 153-154 Smailyte et al. (2004a) Akmene Factories [incidence]

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22. Southern Sweden— 150-152 153-154 Albin et al. (1990) asbestos cement plant [mortality through 1986] 153 154 Jakobsson et al. (1994) [incidence through 1989] 23. Tamworth, England, UK— 161 150 151 153 154 Gardner et al. (1986) TAC Construction Materials Ltd. 24. New Orleans, LA, US— 140-149 161 150 151 153-154 Hughes et al. (1987) workers at two asbestos cement plants Friction Materials 25. Ontario, Canada—two 161 Finkelstein (1989a) automotive-parts factories 26. Ferodo, UK—friction 161 Berry (1994) materials factory 27. USSR 151 ? Kogan et al. (1993) 28. New York, US—friction- 140-149 ? 161 Parnes (1990) products manufacture continues 109

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TABLE 6.1 Continued 110 Results for Selected Cancers (ICD range specified; mortality unless otherwise noted) Cohort Population (location— number, description) Pharynx Larynx Esophagus Stomach Colon Rectum Source Citation Generic “Asbestos Workers” 29. China—eight asbestos #161 ? #150 ? 151 ? #153-154 ? Zhu and Wang (1993) factories 30. Qingdao, China—asbestos 151 ? Pang et al. (1997) plant 31. Federal Republic of 150-151 153-154 Woitowitz et al. Germany—asbestos- (1986) related workers in national register 32. East London, UK—3,000 140-148 161 150 151 153 154 Berry et al. (2000) male (b) and 700 female (c) asbestos factory workers [subgroup a makes up population 13] 33. Lancashire, UK—gas mask 151 Acheson et al. (1982) manufacture 34. England and Wales, UK— 150 ? 151 ? 153 ? 154 ? Hodgson and Jones national survey of asbestos (1986) workers 35. US—asbestos industry 140-148 161 150 151 153 154 Enterline et al. (1987) retirees

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Other Occupations with Substantial Asbestos Exposure 36. Ontario, Canada— 161 ? 150 ? 151 ? 153-154 ? Finkelstein and Verma members of plumbers’ and (2004) pipefitters’ union 37. Finland—7,775 male 161 151 153-154 Tola et al. (1988) shipyard workers [incidence] 38. Tuscany, Italy—railway- 140-149 ? 161 ? 151 ? 152-154 ? Battista et al. (1999) carriage construction and repair 39. Genoa, Italy—ship repair, 140-149 161 150 151 153-154 Puntoni et al. (2001) refitting, and construction 40. Gothenburg, Sweden— 151 152-154 Sanden and Jarvholm shipyard workers (1987) [incidence] NOTES: # = number observed given but no estimated risk; ICD or range = explicit or evident; ICD? or range? = exact sites included in grouping not completely clear. 111

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TABLE 6.2 Rates of Accepted Asbestos-Related Health Outcomes in Cohorts Informative for Selected Cancers 112 Accepted Asbestos-Related Health Outcomes (number observed, RR, 95% CI) Cohort Population (location— number, description) Asbestosis Lung Cancer Mesothelioma Source Citation Patients with Asbestos-Related Disease 1. Italy—631 women all 16, 4.8 (2.7-7.8) 14, 64.0 (35.0-107) Germani et al. (1999) compensated for asbestosis 2. Finland— a. 1,376 asbestosis all a. 127 M, 6.7 (5.6-7.9); a. 9 M, 31.6 (14.4-60.0); Karjalainen et al. patients 6 F, 19.80 (7.3-43.1) 1 F, 95.7 (2.4-533) (1999) b. 4,887 patients with b. 44 M, 1.3 (1.0-1.8); b. 4 M, 5.5 (1.5-14.1); pleural disease 0F 0F 3. Poland— a. 907 men with asbestosis all a. 39, 1.68 (1.22-2.26); a. 3, 26.8 (5.5-78.3); Szeszenia-Dabrowska b. 490 women with all b. 13, 6.21 (3.31-10.62) b. 3, 72.1 (10.3-146) et al. (2002) asbestosis 4. US clinical trial Aliyu et al. (2005) Mining 5. Wittenoom Gorge, 91 M, 1.60 (1.31-1.97) 32 Armstrong et al. Western Australia (1988) [mortality —6,505 men through 1980] a. 6,493 men a. 235 Berry et al. (2004) b. 235 women b. 7 [incidence through 2000]

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6. Quebec, Canada— 646, 1.37 38 Liddell et al. (1997) Asbestos and Thetford [1950-1992] Mines 7. Finland—Paakkila and 76 M, 2.88 (2.27-3.60); 4 M, 45.6 (12.2-115) Meurman et al. Maljasalmi Mines 1 F, 2.22 (0.06-12.4) (1994) 8. Balangero, Italy 16 22, 1.1 2, 6.7 Piolatto et al. (1990) 9. Northern Transvaal, South 1 63, 1.72 (1.32-2.21) 16 Sluis-Cremer et al. Africa—North West Cape (1992) Blue and Penge Mines 10. Libby, MT, US a. NIOSH sample 20, 2.23 (1.36-3.45) Included with lung Amandus and Wheeler (1987) b. McGill sample 21 2 McDonald et al. (1986) Insulation Manufacture/ Insulators (Laggers) 11. Canada/US—17,800 male 427 1,168, 4.35, p<0.001 458 Selikoff and Seidman asbestos insulation unions (1991) members in 1967 12. Uxbridge, UK—Cape 57, 2.0 5 Acheson et al. (1984) [insulation] Boards Plant 13. East London, UK—1,400 38, 3.67 13 Berry et al. (2000) male laggers (a) 14. Tyler, TX, US—753 3 35, 2.77 (1.93-3.85) 4, 28.8 (7.9-73.8) Levin et al. (1998) white male asbestos pipe- insulation plant workers continues 113

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TABLE 6.2 Continued 114 Accepted Asbestos-Related Health Outcomes (number observed, RR, 95% CI) Cohort Population (location— number, description) Asbestosis Lung Cancer Mesothelioma Source Citation Asbestos Textile Workers 15. Italy—889 male and 1,077 38 76, 2.82 (2.22-3.54) 37, 27.8 (19.6-38.6) Pira et al. (2005) female textile workers 16. Rochdale, Northern 7 132, 1.31, p<0.01 11 Peto et al. (1985) England 17. Charleston, SC, US—546 4, 1.55 (0.53-3.55) 2 Dement et al. (1994) black and 1,247 white male and 1,229 white female asbestos textile workers Asbestos Cement 18. Denmark—Danish Eternit 162, 1.80 (1.54-2.10) 10, 5.46 (2.62-10.1) Raffn et al. (1989) Ltd. cement factory [incidence through 1984] 1.63 (1.26-2.08) Raffn et al. (1996) [incidence through 1990] 19. Emilia Romagna, Italy— 33, 1.24 (0.91-1.66) 6, 4.11 Giaroli et al. (1994) 10 cement factories 20. Casale Monferrato, Italy— 85 M; 110 M, 2.71 (2.23-3.27); Botta et al. (1991) asbestos cement production 4F 7 F, 3.96 (1.59-8.16)

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