APPENDIX C
Description of Case-Control Studies of All Selected Cancers as Related to Exposure to Asbestos



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 255
APPENDIX C Description of Case-Control Studies of All Selected Cancers as Related to Exposure to Asbestos 255

OCR for page 255
256 ASBESTOS TABLE C.1 Description of Case-Control Studies of All Selected Cancers as Related to Exposure to Asbestos Referencea Number of Casesb Population Ahrens et al. Male laryngeal-cancer cases identified in one 100 laryngeal 1991 hospital in Bremen, Germany, in 1986 with histologic confirmation; male controls with nonneoplastic disease selected from same hospital and matched on age and residence Berrino et al. Male cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal 215 laryngeal and 2003 cancer, less than 55 yr old, diagnosed in six 100 hypopharyngeal European centers in 1979-1982 with histologic confirmation; controls selected from census lists, electoral rolls, or population registries and matched for sex and age Brown et al. White, male laryngeal-cancer cases, 30-79 yr old, 183 laryngeal 1988 diagnosed in 56 hospitals along Gulf Coast of Texas in 1975-1980; controls selected through Texas Department of Health mortality tapes, drivers license records, HCFA-provided Medicare records, and matched on age, vital status, ethnicity, county of residence Burch et al. Laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed in southern 204 laryngeal 1981 Ontario in 1977-1979; neighborhood controls (184 men and matched on sex, age 20 women)

OCR for page 255
257 APPENDIX C Analysis; Adjustment Number of Relevant for Potential Controlsb Exposures Exposure Assessment Confounders 100 Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic standardized questionnaire regression; smoking, covering lifetime alcohol consumption, occupational history with age exposure checklist 819 Asbestos Interview with Unconditional logistic standardized questionnaire regression; study assessing jobs held at least centre, age, tobacco- 1 year; job titles coded; smoking, consumption panel of industrial of alcohol, SES, dietary hygienists and occupational variables, other agents; physicians assessed Boffetta et al. (2003) probabilities of exposure to analyzed same study specific agents population in terms of occupation and industry 250 Asbestos Interview (self-reports or Logistic regression; proxy) assessing lifetime cigarette smoking, occupational and alcohol consumption residential histories, lifestyle factors, demographic characteristics; industrial hygienist classified job titles for exposure to specific agents 204 Asbestos In-person interview with Discordant pairs, RR; standardized questionnaire smoking assessing lifetime occupational history and lifestyle factors; self- reported agents and occupational epidemiologist classification continues

OCR for page 255
258 ASBESTOS TABLE C.1 Continued Referencea Number of Casesb Population Cocco et al. Male gastric cancer cases, 35-74 yr old, diagnosed 640 gastric 1994 and histologically confirmed in 1985-1987 in four areas of Italy; population controls randomly selected and matched for gender and age De Stefani Male laryngeal-cancer cases, 30-75 yr old, 112 laryngeal et al. 1998 diagnosed in five hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1993-1995; cancer controls selected from same hospitals and timeframe Demers et al. Colon and rectum cancer cases, 40-84 yr-old white 261 colon and rectum 1994 males, diagnosed in 1984-1987 through the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (SEER); controls selected through RDD Dietz et al. Laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed at the 257 laryngeal 2004 Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck (236 men and Surgery university hospitals of Heidelberg and 21 women) Manheim and town hospitals of Ludwigshafen, Darmstadt and Heilbronn, Germany, in 1998- 2000; population controls selected from local registries and matched on sex and age Dumas et al. Male rectal cancer cases, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 257 rectal 2000 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; frequency-matched by approximate age, population- based controls also chosen from electoral lists, RDD

OCR for page 255
259 APPENDIX C Analysis; Adjustment Number of Relevant for Potential Controlsb Exposures Exposure Assessment Confounders 959 Asbestos Interview assessing work Logistic regression; histories (job title and age, study area, duration); jobs coded and residence type, JEM applied for six specific migration, family agents gastric cancer history, quetelet index, total caloric, protein, and vitamin C intake 509 (for Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic asbestos standardized questionnaire regression; age, analysis, 352 assessing lifetime residence, education, excluding occupational histories and income, tobacco- subjects with exposure to specific agents smoking and type, colorectal alcohol consumption cancer) 183 Asbestos Telephone interview Unconditional logistic assessing lifetime work, regression; age, medical, and lifestyle smoking histories; occupations and industries coded and assigned likelihoods of asbestos exposure 769 In-person interview with Conditional logistic (702 men and standardized questionnaire regression; age, sex, 67 women) assessing lifetime smoking, alcohol occupational history, consumption tobacco and alcohol use; quantification using job- specific supplementary questionnaires validated for asbestos 1,295 cancer, Chrysotile; In-person interviews with Unconditional logistic 533 population amphiboles specific question on details regression; age, of each job subject had; education, respondent analyzed and coded by status, cigarette- team of chemists and smoking, beer industrial hygienists (about consumption, BMI 300 exposures) on semi-quantitative scale continues

OCR for page 255
260 ASBESTOS TABLE C.1 Continued Referencea Number of Casesb Population Ekstrom Gastric cancer cases, 40-79 yr old, residing in one 565 gastric et al. 1999 of five counties, born in Sweden, and diagnosed in 1989-1995, identified and histologically confirmed by participating clinicians from all hospitals in the study area; controls randomly selected from the population register Elci et al. Male laryngeal-cancer cases diagnosed in Oncology 940 laryngeal 2002 Treatment Center of Social Security Agency Okmeydani Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1979- 1984 with histologic confirmation; controls selected from same hospital, timeframe among cases of HD, cancers of skin (nonmelanoma), testis, bone, male breast as well as benign lesions Fredriksson Colon cancer cases, 30-75 yr old, identified through 329 colon et al. 1989 the Swedish Cancer Registry among patients (165 men and diagnosed in 1980-1983; cases resident of the Umea 164 women) region and alive during the study’s data collection; randomly selected population controls from the National Population Register frequency-matched on age, sex Garabrant English-speaking, white, male cases of colon cancer, 419 colon et al. 1992 45-70 yr old, diagnosed in 1983-1986, and identified through the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program; neighborhood controls matched on gender and date of birth Gerhardsson Colorectal-cancer cases identified through local 352 colon de Verdier hospitals and Regional Cancer Registry in (163 men and et al. 1992 Stockholm, Sweden in 1986-1988; cases 189 women); histologically confirmed and subjects limited to 217 rectal those born in Sweden in 1907-1946 and lived half (107 men and their lives there; population controls randomly 110 women) selected from Stockholm County population registry

OCR for page 255
261 APPENDIX C Analysis; Adjustment Number of Relevant for Potential Controlsb Exposures Exposure Assessment Confounders 1,164 Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic professional interviewer; regression; age, sex occupational epidemiologists to assess type of exposure and duration from self-reports of exposure and job titles 1,519 Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic standardized questionnaire regression; age, assessing lifetime smoking, alcohol occupational history, consumption tobacco and alcohol use; industrial hygienist performed JEM exposure assignments 658 Asbestos Mailed questionnaire Mantel-Haenszel; age, (330 men and assessing occupational sex, physical activity 328 women) history (job titles); telephone interviews followed if necessary; exposure to high or low grade of asbestos independently coded by two physicians and one hygienist 419 Asbestos In-person interview with Conditional logistic standardized regression; family questionnaires assessing history of large bowel past 30 years of cancer, total caloric occupational exposures, intake, carbohydrates, physical activity and calcium, weight, and weight, medical history, physical activity family cancer history, and a modified Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire 512 Asbestos Questionnaire administered Unconditional logistic (236 men and in person or through mail regression; age, sex, 276 women) with follow-up telephone nutritional intake survey; exposure to list of markers, BMI, physical chemicals or employment activity, family history in specified occupations of colorectal cancer determined continues

OCR for page 255
262 ASBESTOS TABLE C.1 Continued Referencea Number of Casesb Population Goldberg Male cases and controls, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 497 colon et al. 2001 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; frequency-matched by approximate age; population- based controls also chosen from electoral lists and with RDD Gustavsson Oral-cavity, oro- and hypopharyngeal-, laryngeal-, 545 total, including: et al. 1998 and esophageal-cancer cases among all Swedish 138 pharyngeal, men, 40-79 yr old, residing in two regions with 157 laryngeal, reporting from departments of oncology and 122 esophageal surgery in 1988-1990; controls randomly selected from population registers and matched on age, region Hardell Men from Umea region, 25-85 yr old, diagnosed 154 colon 1981 with adenocarcinoma of colon reported to Swedish Cancer Registry 1978-1979; controls from Umea region assembled for two previous studies were used as referents Hillerdal Male gastrointestinal cancer cases diagnosed in 386 total 1980 Uppsala county in 1968-1972 obtained through the (21 esophagus, Swedish Cancer Registry with chest x-rays retrieved 148 stomach, through the General Health Survey; controls 8 small intestine, selected 3:1 based on age, sex, and year of x-ray 108 large intestine, and 101 rectum) Hinds et al. White, male laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed in 47 laryngeal 1979 3 counties of Washington through the Cancer Surveillance System in 1976-1977; neighborhood controls matched on sex, race, age Krstev et al. Stomach cancer cases, 21-79 yr old, diagnosed at 443 stomach 2005 22 hospitals and eight endoscopic centers in (285 men and Warsaw, Poland, in 1994-1996; controls randomly 158 women) selected from an electronic registry and matched on gender and age

OCR for page 255
263 APPENDIX C Analysis; Adjustment Number of Relevant for Potential Controlsb Exposures Exposure Assessment Confounders 1,514 cancer, Asbestos In-person interviews with Unconditional logistic 533 population specific question on detail regression; age, of each job subject had; respondent status, analyzed and coded by ethnicity, team of chemists and non-occupational industrial hygienists (about factors (such as 300 exposures) on cigarette-smoking, semi-quantitative scale alcohol consumption) 641 Asbestos Interview with standardized Unconditional logistic questionnaire assessing regression; age, region, lifestyle and environmental alcohol consumption, factors; occupational tobacco-smoking hygienist assigned exposure intensity, probability to 17 specific occupational exposures 541 Asbestos Responses to mailed Mantel-Haenszel questionnaire on work analysis stratified on history, chemical age and urban vs rural exposures, and lifestyle residence factors interpreted to determine ever-never status for asbestos exposure. 1,158 Asbestos Evidence of pleural plaques Standardized incidence on chest x-rays regarded as ratio (observed/ indirect proof of asbestos expected) exposure 47 Asbestos In-person interview (or Matched pairs, RR next-of-kin for deceased) with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history and lifestyle factors 479 Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic (313 men and standardized questionnaire regression; age, 166 women) assessed lifetime education, smoking, occupational history and lifetime number of jobs exposure to numerous held specific agents continues

OCR for page 255
264 ASBESTOS TABLE C.1 Continued Referencea Number of Casesb Population Luce et al. Cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer 23 larynx 2000 identified from the Cancer Registry of New (20 men and Caledonia in 1993-1995 among residents living 3 women); there at least 5 years and 18 years old; population 5 hypopharynx controls selected from electoral rolls and matched on sex and age Marchand Male cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer 315 laryngeal et al. 2000 diagnosed in 15 hospitals in six cities in France in 206 hypopharyngeal 1989-1991; hospital, cancer controls selected Merletti Male oral- and oropharyngeal cancer cases, 86 oral cavity or et al. 1991 26-92 yr old, diagnosed in Turin, Italy, in 1982- oropharyngeal 1984; controls selected randomly from resident (12 specifically files, stratified by age, sex oropharyngeal) Muscat and White, male laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed and 194 laryngeal Wynder histologcally confirmed at eight hospitals in New 1992 York, Illinois, Michigan, and Pennsylvania in 1985- 1990; hospital controls randomly selected and matched on hospital, age, and year of interview Neugut Colorectal cancer cases among males, 35-84 yr old, 51 colorectal et al. 1991 undergoing colonoscopy in three NYC medical centers in 1986-1988; colonoscopy controls free of invasive colon carcinomas, inflammatory bowel disease, or colon polyps

OCR for page 255
265 APPENDIX C Analysis; Adjustment Number of Relevant for Potential Controlsb Exposures Exposure Assessment Confounders 305 total Pö, a whitewash In-person (or next-of-kin Unconditional logistic (matched also containing for deceased) interview regression; age, to 228 lung tremolite with standardized ethnicity, smoking, cancer cases, asbestos questionnaire assessed alcohol etc.) lifetime occupational and lifestyle history and residence in whitewashed houses 305 Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic standardized questionnaire regression; age, assessing lifetime smoking, alcohol occupational history, consumption; tobacco and alcohol use; Goldberg et al. (1997) JEM exposure assignments analyzed same study population in terms of occupation and industry, while Menvielle et al. (2004) analyzed the occupational information from an SES perspective 373 Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic standardized questionnaire regression; age, assessing lifetime education, birthplace, occupational history; job tobacco-smoking, titles coded; industrial alcohol consumption hygienists applied JEM to determine exposures to 13 agents 184 Asbestos In-person interview Multiple logistic assessed occupational regression; age, history and exposure to education, smoking, specific agents; occupation alcohol, quetelet index and exposure linkage system applied to determine exposure probability and intensity 195 Asbestos Telephone interview or Multiple logistic mailed questionnaire regression; age assessed self-reported exposure to asbestos with occupational history used continues as verification

OCR for page 255
266 ASBESTOS TABLE C.1 Continued Referencea Number of Casesb Population Olsen and Laryngeal cancer cases, less than 75 yr old, 326 laryngeal Sabroe 1984 diagnosed in 1980-1982 through five department (276 men and of oncology in Denmark; population controls 50 women) matched 4:1 through municipal registries and matched on sex, age Parent et al. Male cases and controls, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 250 stomach 1998 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; frequency-matched by approximate age; population- based controls also chosen from electoral lists and with RDD Parent et al. Male cases and controls, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 99 esophageal 2000 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and (63 squamous-cell histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; carcinoma, frequency-matched by approximate age; population- 23 adenocarcinomas, based controls also chosen from electoral lists and and 13 uncertain with RDD morphology) Shettigara Male cases of laryngeal cancer diagnosed at 43 laryngeal and Morgan Toronto General Hospital and resident of 1975 metropolitan Toronto in 1974; neighborhood controls matched on sex and age Spiegelman Cases of colon and rectal cancer and cancer 370 colon and Wegman controls selected from sample of Third National (218 men and 1985 Cancer Survey of incident cancers in seven US 152 women); metropolitan areas and two states in 1969-1971; 175 rectal digestive and occupationally associated cancers (119 men and (respiratory, urinary, bone, skin, buccal, 56 women); pharyngeal, leukemia) excluded from controls 8 large intestine (6 men and 2 women) Stell and Male laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed 100 laryngeal McGill 1973 consecutively in one Liverpool hospital; hospital controls matched on age

OCR for page 255
267 APPENDIX C Analysis; Adjustment Number of Relevant for Potential Controlsb Exposures Exposure Assessment Confounders 1,134 Asbestos In-person interview with Logistic regression; (971 men and standardized questionnaire age, tobacco, alcohol 163 women) assessing lifetime consumption, sex occupational and lifestyle histories, exposure to specific agents 2,289 cancer, Chrysotile In-person interviews with Unconditional logistic 533 population asbestos, specific question on detail regression; age, amphibole of each job subject had; respondent status, asbestos analyzed, coded by team birthplace, education, of chemists and industrial cigarette-smoking hygienists (about 300 exposures) on semi-quantitative scale 2,299 cancer, Asbestos In-person interviews with Unconditional logistic 533 population specific question on detail regression; age, of each job subject had; respondent status, analyzed, coded by team birthplace, educational of chemists and industrial level, beer hygienists (about 300 consumption, spirits exposures) on consumption, β- semi-quantitative scale carotene index, cigarette-smoking (length, pattern) 43 Asbestos In-person interview with Discordant pairs standardized questionnaire assessing age at first exposure and duration of exposure to asbestos and other agents 1,861 total Asbestos Interviews conducted on Logistic regression; (626 men and primary, secondary age, race, marital 1,245 women) occupations, industries, status, region, income duration; exposure group, educational assignment according to level, body mass, NIOSH National nutritional scores Occupational Hazard Survey protocol 100 Asbestos In-person interview with Chi-square questionnaire assessing occupational history continues

OCR for page 255
268 ASBESTOS TABLE C.1 Continued Referencea Number of Casesb Population Vineis et al. Colon cancer cases diagnosed in 1990-1991 at the 131 colon 1993 Main Hospital of Torino, Italy; controls selected (74 men and from a 10% sample of patients with nontraumatic 57 women) conditions in 1989-1990 Wortley Laryngeal cancer cases, 20-74 yr old, identified 235 laryngeal et al. 1992 through the Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (SEER participant) in Seattle of western Washington residents in 1983-1987; controls selected through RDD and matched on age and sex Zagraniski White, male cases of laryngeal cancer diagnosed in 87 laryngeal et al. 1986 two New Haven hospitals in 1975-1980; white, male general surgery controls Zheng et al. Oral- and pharyngeal-cancer cases, 20-75 yr old, 204 oral 1992a identified through population-based cancer registry or pharyngeal as newly diagnosed in 1988-1990; controls (115 men and randomly selected from Shanghai Resident Registry, 89 women) matched on age, sex Zheng et al. Laryngeal cancer cases, 20-75 yr old, identified 201 laryngeal 1992b through population-based cancer registry as newly (177 men and diagnosed in 1988-1990; controls randomly selected 24 women) from Shanghai Resident Registry, matched on age, sex NOTE: BMI = body mass index; HCFA = Health Care Financing Administration; HD = Hodgkin’s disease; JEM = job exposure matrix; NIOSH = National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; OR = odds ratio; RDD = random-digit dialing; SES = socio-economic status. aFull citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6. bNumber of cases and controls with information necessary for analysis (as used in this report’s meta-analyses and reported in tables in Appendix E) may have been less.

OCR for page 255
269 APPENDIX C Analysis; Adjustment Number of Relevant for Potential Controlsb Exposures Exposure Assessment Confounders 463 Jobs with Self-reported job titles Mantel-Haenszel OR; (254 men and potential coded and selected as age 209 women) exposure to exposed for: stone cutter, asbestos mechanic or pipes and boilers, pipefitter, steamfitter, boilermaker, mechanic at heating company, and pipe installer 547 Asbestos In-person interview with Multiple logistic standardized questionnaire regression; smoking, assessing lifetime drinking, age, occupational history; education industrial hygienists performed JEM exposure assignments 153 Asbestos work In-person interview with Condition logistic standardized questionnaire regression; tobacco, assessing lifetime alcohol consumption occupational history and lifestyle factors 414 Asbestos In-person interview with Chi-squared test (269 men and standardized questionnaire 145 women) assessing lifestyle factors and occupational exposures 414 Asbestos In-person interview with Unconditional logistic (269 men and standardized questionnaire regression; age, 145 women) assessing lifestyle factors smoking, education

OCR for page 255