Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated RR (95% CI)

Gustavsson et al. 1998

138 pharyngeal cancer cases among male residents of two regions in Sweden (adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption)




Asbestos (low)


1.01 (0.57-1.80)


Asbestos (high)


1.08 (0.62-1.91)

Zheng et al. 1992b

115 male oral or pharyngeal cancer cases among residents of Shanghai, China Asbestos, occupational exposure


1.81 (0.91-3.60)a

Merletti et al. 1991

86 oral cavity or oropharynx (n = 12) cancer cases among male residents of Turin, Italy (adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption)




Any exposure


1.1 (na)


Probable or definite


0.4 (na)

NOTES: CI = Confidence interval; na = not available; RR = relative risk. Data points included in meta-analyses are bolded.

* Full citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6.

aOR and 95% CI calculated with standard methods from observed numbers of exposed cases and controls in original paper.

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