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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This project was supported by the American Society for Microbiology; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Defense Threat Reduction Agency; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Disease Society of America; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Merck; Pfizer; Sanofi Pasteur; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health/National Institute for Allergies and Infectious Disease and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; U.S. Department of Defense/Global Emerging Infections Surveillance/Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Department of State; and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The views presented in this report are those of the editors and attributed authors and are not necessarily those of the funding agencies.

This report is based on the proceedings of a workshop that was sponsored by the Forum on Microbial Threats. It is prepared in the form of a workshop summary by and in the name of the editors, with the assistance of staff and consultants, as an individually authored document. Sections of the workshop summary not specifically attributed to an individual reflect the views of the editors and not those of the Forum on Microbial Threats. The content of those sections is based on the presentations and the discussions that took place during the workshop.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Ending the war metaphor : the changing agenda for unraveling the host-microbe relationship : workshop summary / Forum on Microbial Threats, Board on Global Health.

p. ; cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 0-309-09601-4 (pbk.)

1. Host-parasite relationships—Congresses. 2. Communicable diseases—Transmission—Congresses. 3. Microbiology—Congresses. I. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Forum on Microbial Threats.

[DNLM: 1. Host-Parasite Relations—Congresses. 2. Communicable Diseases, Emerging—microbiology—Congresses. 3. Communicable Diseases, Emerging—prevention & control—Congresses. 4. Drug Resistance, Microbial—Congresses. QX 45 E56 2006]

RB153.E53 2006



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The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

COVER: A detailed section of a stained glass window 21 × 56″ depicting the natural history of influenza viruses and zoonotic exchange in the emergence of new strains was used to design the front cover. Based on the work done at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital supported by American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Artist: Jenny Hammond, Highgreenleycleugh, Northumberland, England.

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