talented social science investigators described below is a major challenge for the hazards and disaster research community.

This challenge results, in part, from reliance on traditional recruitment strategies and the relatively modest funding that has been available for research and education in the social sciences (in comparison with the natural sciences and engineering). Traditional recruitment strategies are not likely to yield the number of new researchers that will be needed in hazards and disaster research. Academically based researchers have been the mainstay of this research specialty within the social sciences for decades. For these professionals, issues of funding and publication in mainstream as well as specialty journals are crucial considerations for achieving tenure and promotion. Given the plethora of research specialties in all of the social sciences, the competition for space in mainstream journals is very intense, requiring major efforts to link respective specialty research interests and findings with mainstream theoretical developments and issues. While hazards and disaster researchers in the social sciences have had notable successes in this regard, the trade-offs of publishing in specialty versus mainstream journals are particularly pointed for junior scholars. Another related and major challenge is changing the composition of the hazards and disaster workforce, which quite frankly has never been very diverse.

New opportunities and challenges have emerged, however, that may facilitate expansion of the hazards and disaster research workforce within the social sciences. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, for example, which involved the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and the crash of the terrorist-held plane in Pennsylvania, has generated significant interest in hazards and disaster research related to terrorism. As a result, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is now funding major research and educational initiatives that, consistent with its congressional mandate (see HR 5005 as amended, November 25, 2002), have implications for both terrorism and other types of hazards and disasters. Specifically, DHS has established a fellowship and scholarship program to produce a new generation of researchers, including social scientists. It also has established a Centers of Excellence Program, one that includes the Center of Excellence for Behavioral and Social Research on Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism. An even more direct recruitment approach is the Enabling Project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), which offers an innovative and promising strategy for mentoring junior faculty in the social sciences interested in research on natural, technological, and human-induced hazards and disasters. Another positive trend is the establishment of new homeland security journals, some of which are online, that can provide additional specialty publication outlets for young as well as established hazards and disaster researchers. Finally, NSF continues to



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