FIGURE 1 Industry of respondents (percentage).

Industrial Classifications

  1. Chemicals & advanced materials

  2. Healthcare

  3. R&D services

  4. Communications, electronics

  5. Food, tobacco, & related

  6. Industrial products not listed elsewhere

  7. Personal care; consumer products not listed elsewhere

  8. Industrial machinery & equipment

  9. Aerospace; transportation & public utilities

  10. Petroleum & related products

  11. Fabricated & primary metal

  12. Genetic engineering/molecular biology

  13. Paper & allied products

  14. Professional & related products

  15. Textile products & apparel

Questions regarding the distribution of R&D effort were in terms of employment rather than expenditure. There is general consensus from our interviews with R&D managers that this minimizes error, not only from exchange rate conversion, but also from the ability to answer questions easily. Questions on employment also translate directly into policy issues of interest.

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